VI CANARY ISLANDS WINTER SCHOOL OF ASTROPHYSICS

"THE STRUCTURE OF THE SUN"

Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias 
December 5th - 16th, 1994 
Adeje, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain
Organizing Committee: 
F. Sánchez, T. Roca-Cortés

Programme

Techniques for Observing Solar Oscillations.
Prof. Timothy M. Brown. High Altitude Observatory/National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA.

Testing a Solar Model: The Forward Problem.
Prof. Jorgen Christensen-Dalsgaard. Teoretisk Astrofysik Center, Danmarks Grundforskingsfond, and Institut for Fysik og Astronomi. Aarhus Universitet. Denmark

Testing Solar Models: The inverse Problem.
Prof. Douglas Gough. Institute of Astronomy & Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge. UK. JILA, University of Colorado & National Institute of Science and Technology, U.S.A.

Global Changes in the Sun.
Prof. J.R. Kuhn. National Solar Observatory, Sunspot NM, and Michigan State University. USA.

Solar Interior and Solar Neutrinos.
Prof. John N. Bahcall. Institute for Advanced Study, School of Natural Sciences. USA.

The Solar Magnetic Fields.
Prof. Eugene N. Parker. Enrico Fermi Institute. USA.

Activity in Thesolar Atmosphere as Observed by Yohkoh.
Prof. Yutaka Uchida. Dpto.of Physics, Science University of Tokyo. Sinjuku-ku, Tokyo,Japan. Dpto. of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.


"TECHNIQUES FOR OBSERVING SOLAR OSCILLATIONS"

Prof. Timothy M. Brown.
High Altitude Observatory/National Center for Atmospheric Research. USA

1.- ANALYSIS TOOLS AND THE SOLAR NOISE BACKGROUND.

1.1.- Fourier Transforms and Statistics.

1.2.- The Solar Noise Background.

1.3.- Limits to Observable Accuracy.

2.- INSTRUMENTATION FOR MEASURING SOLAR p-MODES.

2.1.- Velocity Measurements.

2.2.- Intensity Measurements.

2.3.- Summary.

3.- ANALYSIS TOOLS FOR HELIOSEISMOLOGY.

3.1.- Spatial Analysis.

3.2.- Transposition.

3.3.- Time Series Analysis & Peak Bagging.

4.- LOCAL ANALYSIS METHODS

4.1.- Frequencies vs. Eigenfunctions.

4.2.- Scattering.Absorption, and Lifetimes.

 

"TESTING A SOLAR MODEL: THE FORWARD PROBLEM"

Prof. Jorgen Christensen-Dalsgaard.
Teoretisk Astrofysik Center, Danmarks Grundforskningsfond, and Institut for Fysik og Astronomi. Aarhus Universitet. Denmark.

1.- INTRODUCTION.

1.1.- A Little History.

1.2.- Definition of the Forward Problem.

2.- PHYSICS OF SOLAR MODELS.

2.1.- Introduction.

2.2.- Microphysics.

2.3.- Maerophysics.

2.4.- Structure of the Solar Convection zone.

2.5.- Overview of Solar Structure.

3.- PROPERTIES OF ADIABATIC OSCILLATIONS.

3.1.- Introduction.

3.2.- What do the Oscillation Frequenceis Depend on?

3.3.- Simple p-mode Asymptotics.

3.4.- Perturbation Analysis of Effects of Model Changes.

4.- APPLICATIONS TO MODELS AND OBSERVED FREQUENCIES.

4.1.- Effects of Changes in the Superadiabatic Region of the Convection Zone.

4.2.- Opacity Increase Near the Base of the Convection Zone.

4.3.- Diffusion and Settling of Helium.

4.4.- Opacity Decrease in the Core.

4.5.- The Base of the Convection Zone.

4.6.- The Equation of State.

5.- ANALYSIS OF OBSERVED FREQUENCIES.

5.1.- Asymptotic Analysis of Observed Frequencies.

5.2.- Test of the Equation of State.

5.3.- Matching te Near-Surface Effects.

6.- TOWARDS THE STARS?

6.1.- Eta Bootis.

6.2.- Concluding Remarks.

 

"TESTING SOLAR MODELS: THE INVERSE PROBLEM"

Prof. Douglas Gough
Institute of Astronomy & Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, U.K.

JILA, University of Colorado & National Institute of Science and Technology, U.S.A.

1.- INTRODUCTION.

1.1.- About What Can the Eigenfrequencies Tell Us?

1.2.- What Cannot the Eigenfrequencies Tell Us?

2.- THE IDEA OF INVERSION.

3.- ON MODEL-CALIBRATION.

4.- DIRECT ASYMPTOTIC INVERSIONS.

5.- FORMULATING LINEAR HELIOSEISMIC INVERSE PROBLEMS.

6.- ON "SOLVING" LINEARIZED INVERSE PROBLEMS IN ONE DIMENSION.

6.1.- Regularized Least-Squares Fitting (RLSF).

6.2.- Spectral Expansions and the Annihilator.

6.3.- Linearized Asymptotic Inversions (LAI).

6.4.- Optimally Localized Averaging (OLA).

6.5.- Uncertainty and Tradeoff.

6.6.- RLSF y OLA.

6.7.- On the Representation of Localized Averages.

6.8.- The Direct Product of Inversion Algorithms.

7.- LINEARIZED TWO-DIMENSIONAL INVERSIONS.

7.1.- So-called Fully Two-Dimensional Methods.

7.2.- Hybrid Methods.

7.3.- Asymptotic Inversions.

7.4.- 1 x 1 Inversions.

7.5.- A Comment.

8.- TOWARDS REALISM.

8.1.- Uncertain Influence of the Surface Layers.

8.2.- Correlated Errors.

8.3.- On the Stratification of the Convection Zone.

8.4.- Mode Distortion.

"GLOBAL CHANGES IN THE SUN"

Prof. J.R. Kuhn.
National Solar Observatory, Sunspot NM, and Michigan State University. USA.

 

1.- INTRODUCTION.

2.- SOME INTERESTING NON-ACOUSTINC OBSERVABLES.

2.1.- Global Observations.

2.2.- Solar Neutrino Variations?

2.3.- Another Solar Mode?

3.-INTERPRETING VELOCITY AND SHAPE DATA.

3.1.- Lowest Order: A Hydrostatic Sun.

3.2.- Mean Flows.

3.3.- Turbulent Flows.

3.4.- Generating Mean Flows.

4.- INTERPRETING BRIGHTNESS DATA.

4.1.- Turbulent Heat Flow.

4.2.- How Many Irradiance Components?

4.3.- Irradiance or Luminosity Changes?

4.4.- Timescales.

5.- EXPERIMENTING BELOW THE PHOTOSPHERE.

5.1.- Helioseismic Tools.

5.2.- Asphericity.

5.3.- The Asphericity Data and Splitting Coefficients.

5.4.- Mechanisms.

6.- NUMERICAL EXPERIMENTS, DEEP QUESTIONS?

6.1.- Numerical Experiments.

6.2.- Deeper Mechanisms?

6.3.- Magnetic or Thermal Variations?

6.4.- Top 10 List of Needed data and Calculations Relevant to These Problems.

7.- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.

 

"SOLAR INTERIOR AND SOLAR NEUTRINOS"

Prof. John N. Bahcall
Institute for Advanced Study, School of Natural Sciences. U.S.A.

1.- NUCLEAR FUSION REACTIONS IN THE SUN.

2.- THE CHLORINE SOLAR NEUTRINO EXPERIMENT.

3.- CHLORINE VERSUS KAMIOKANDE.

4.- GALLEX AND SAGE.

 

"THE SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELDS"

Prof. Eugene N. Parker.
Enrico Fermi Institute. USA.

1.- INTRODUCTORY THEORETICAL DYNAMICS OF ASTROPHYSICAL PLASMAS AND FIELDS.

2.- THE ORIGIN OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD OF THE SUN.

3.- 300000 GAUSS AZIMUTHAL MAGNETIC FIELDS.

3.1.- The Azimuthal Field.

3.2.- The Barometric Origin of the Intense Field.

4.- BRIGHTNESS VARIATION OF THE SUN.

5.- SOLAR AND STELLAR X-RAY EMISSION.

 

"ACTIVITY IN THESOLAR ATMOSPHERE AS OBSERVED BY YOHKOH"

Prof. Yutaka Uchida
Department of Physics, Science University of Tokyo. Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

 

1.- GENERAL INTRODUCTION.

1.1.- The Satellite YOHKOH.

1.2.- Advantages of Yohkoh Observations.

2.- THE ACTIVE REGION CORONA REVEALED BY YOHKOH.

2.1.- Introduction - Previous Notions about Active Region Corona.

2.2.- New Observation of Active Region Corona by Yohkoh.

3.- NEW CLUES TO THE FLARE MECHANISM.

3.1.- Introduction - Previous Notion about Flares.

3.2.- Observations of Flares by Yohkoh.

4.- OBSERVED PHENOMENA IN THE BACKGROUND CORONA.

4.1.- Introduction - Previous Notion of the Corona.

4.2.- Observation of the Background Corona.

5.- BRIEF COMMENTS ON GLOBAL FEATURES AND CYCLE PHASE-DEPENDENT PHENOMENA SUGGESTED BY YOHKOH.

6.- CONCLUSION.