VIII CANARY ISLANDS WINTER SCHOOL OF ASTROPHYSICS

"STELLAR ASTROPHYSICS FOR THE LOCAL GROUP A FIRST STEP TO THE UNIVERSE"

Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias
La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain)
December 2nd - 13th, 1996
Organizing Committee: 

F. Sánchez, A. Aparicio, A. Herrero

Programme

-Observations of the most Luminous Stars.
        Prof. Dr. Philip Massey.Kitt Peak National Observatory
-Quantitative Spectroscopy of the most Luminous Blue Stars in Galaxies.
        Prof. Dr. Rolf Kudritzki. Universität-Sternwarte München
-Massive Stars and the Interaction with the ISM.
        Prof. Dr. Claus Leitherer. Space Telescope Science Institute
-The Extragalactic distance scale.
Prof. Dr. Barry Madore. NASA / IPAC. Extragalactic Database Infrared Processing and Analisys Center
-Resolved Stellar Populations in Luminous Galaxies.
        Prof. Dr. Mario Mateo.University of Michigan.
-Neutral and Ionized Gas in Nearby Galaxies.
        Prof. Dr. Evan Skillman.University of Minnesota.
-Dwarf Galaxies.
        Prof. Dr. Gary Da Costa. Mt Stromlo & Siding Spring Observatory
-Stellar Evolution.
        Prof. Dr. Cesare Chiosi. Universita di Padova.

“OBSERVATIONS OF THE MOST LUMINOUS STARS”

Prof. Dr. Philip Massey
Kitt Peak National Observatory

1. Introducing the Unevolved Luminous Stars
1.1.- Stellar parameters, ages, main-sequence evolution: Luminous EQ Massive
1.2.- Colors of hot stars
1.3.- Color-Magnitude Diagrams
1.4.- Effects of reddening
1.5.- Bolometric Corrections
1.6.- Spectral Classification
1.7.- HR Diagrams: The Difference Betwen "Luminous and Bright"
2. Finding Main-sequence Luminous Stars in the Local Group Methodology: 
2.1.- UBV Photometry with CCDs
2.2.- Reddening-free indices
2.3.- Spectroscopy
---doing it one star at a time
---doing a bunch of stars at once
2.4.- HRDs for OB associations in the Local Group
3. Finding the Evolved Descendants of Massive Stars: LBVs, WRs, and RSGs
3.1.- Motivation: Observational Constraints on Stellar Evolution
3.2.- How to find them: Not as Easy as You Might Think
Wolf-Rayets---bias towards WCs
RSGs---telling foreground dwarfs from RSGs
LBVs---the "tip of the iceberg" effect
4. Secrets of Star Formation as Revealed by Luminous Stars
4.1.- UBV Photometry + Classification ---> HRDs
4.2.- Initial Mass Functions and Upper Mass Limits in the
Field and Associations of the Milky Way and Magellanic Clouds (MC)
4.3.- What's Next: Extention to Galaxies beyond the MCs
5. Secrets of Stellar Evolution Revealed by Luminous Stars
5.1.- Global Properties: RSG/BSG Ratios, O/WR Ratios, WC/WN Ratios
5.2.- Individual OB Associations: coeveal tests of stellar evolution.

"QUANTITATIVE SPECTROSCOPY OF THE MOST LUMINOUS BLUE  STARS IN GALAXIES"
Prof. Dr. Rolf Kudritzki
Universität-Sternwarte München

1. The physics of hot star atmospheres
1.1.- Stellar winds and hydrodynamic atmosphere models
1.2.- NLTE-effects and spectrum synthesis
1.3.- Ionizing fluxes
1.4.- X-ray emission
1.5.- IR-excess 
2. Spectral diagnostics of luminous blue supergiants
2.1.- Effective temperatures and gravities
2.2.- Stellar wind properties
2.3.- Masses, radii and luminosities
2.4.- Abundances
3. The stellar cluster in the Galactic Center
3.1.- IR-spectroscopy and the HeI emission line stars
3.2.- Hydrodynamic model atmospheres and IR line emission
3.3.- The physical properties of the young cluster of massive stars in the Galactic Center
4. Radiation driven winds and the wind momentume-luminosity relation as a tool for extragalactic distances
4.1.- Wind momentum and stellar luminosity: theory
4.2.- The observed wind momentum luminosity relation of galactic supergiants
5. O,B,A-supergiants in Local Group galaxies
5.1.- The most massive stars in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds
5.2.- Element abundances from HST and optical spectroscopy
5.3.- Supergiants in M31 and M33
5.4.- Wind momentum in Local Group galaxies
6. The step beyond the Local Group
6.1.- The new 8m class telescopes and quantitativ spectroscopy beyond the Local Group: an outlook
6.2.- Preparative work and first results
6.3.- Stellar element abundances in HST Cepheid-fields
6.4.- Wind momentum and distances up to the Virgo cluster

“MASSIVE STARS AND THE INTERACTION WITH THE ISM”

Prof. Dr. Claus Leitherer
Space Telescope Science Institute

1. Introduction
2. Regions of high-mass star formation
2.1.- High-mass SF in the Galaxy
2.2.- 30 Doradus: the Rosetta Stone
2.3.- Nearby galaxies: cluster vs. field population
2.4.- Implications for more distant galaxies
3. Techniques to constrain the stellar content
3.1.- Spectroscopy and photometry of individual stars
3.2.- CM diagrams of resolved populations
3.3.- Evolutionary synthesis of unresolved populations
3.4.- Nebular diagnostics as stellar tracers
3.5.- IMF and SF history in nearby galaxies
4. Release of mass and energy by massive stars
4.1.- Wind properties of individual stars
4.2.- Wind-blown bubbles around massive stars
4.3.- Mass and energy release by stellar populations
4.4.- Stars versus supernovae
4.5.- Dynamics of GEHRs
5. Massive stars and galaxy evolution
5.1.- Modes of SF in galaxies
5.2.- Massive stars and the global properties of the ISM
5.3.- Galactic superwinds
5.4.- Chemical evolution of dwarf galaxies
6. Epilogue

“THE EXTRAGALACTIC DISTANCE SCALE”

Prof. Dr. Barry Madore
NASA / IPAC
Extragalactic Database Infrared Processing and Analisys Center

1. Historical Introduction to the Extragalactic Distance Scale
1.1.- Hubble's program
1.2.- Decades of revision
1.3.- Decades of divergence
1.4.- Fundamental problems and issues before HST
2. Cepheid Period-Luminosity Relation: Empirical Calibration
2.1.- An observer's view of the Cepheid instability strip
2.2.- Reddening corrections and intrinsic colors
2.3.- Metallicity effects
2.4.- Zero points and the distance to the LMC
2.5.- Infrared photometry
2.6.- Multi-wavelength solutions
3. Tip of the Red Giant Branch Distances
3.1.- Historical perspective (Shapley, etc.)
3.2.- Theory of the core Helium flash
3.3.- Calibration of the first ascent red giant branch peak luminosity
3.4.- Local Group galaxies
3.5.- Comparison with Cepheid distance scale
3.6.-Applications with HST
4. Secondary Distance Indicators: Description and New Calibrations
4.1.- Tully-Fisher
4.2.- Planetary Nebula Luminosity Functions
4.3.- Surface Brightness Fluctuations
4.4.- Type Ia Supernovae
4.5.- Type II Supernovae
5. The Hubble Space Telescope Key Project: Latest Results on Ho
5.1.- Philosphy and strategy of the Key Project
5.2.- Make-up of the Team
5.3.- Calibrators (plan, sampleand status report)
5.4.- HST optimized search procedure
5.5.- Local calibrators: Virgocentric flow 
5.6.- Cepheid distances to Virgo: Ho out to 1,000 km/sec
5.7.- Cepheid distance to Fornax:
Interim recalibration of all secondary calibrators
Ho out to beyond 10,000 km/sec
5.8.- Remaining issues
5.9.- Cosmological Implications

“RESOLVED STELLAR POPULATIONS IN LUMINOUS GALAXIES”

Prof. Dr. Mario Mateo 
University of Michigan

1. Introduction: Current range of ground/space based studies of resolved galaxies
2. Methods:
2.1.- Crowded field photometry
2.2.- Photometry in fields with complex backgrounds
3. The Magellanic Clouds:Probing regions of high stellar density
3.1.- In clusters
3.2.- The field
4. M31, M33 and outliers of the Local Group
5. Stellar populations in nearby groups
5.1.- The M81 group
5.2.- Sculptor group
5.3.- Cen A group
6. Stellar populations in nearby galaxy clusters: Pushing techniques and analyses to the limit.

“NEUTRAL AND IONIZED GAS IN NEARBY GALAXIES”

Prof. Dr. Evan Skillman
University of Minnesota

1. The ISM distributions in Local Group Galaxies (1 hour)
1.1.- HI distributions
1.2.- Molecular distributions
1.3.- H-alpha distributions
1.4.-What we don't know
2. Star Formation in Local Group Galaxies (1 hour)
2.1.- H-alpha observations and star formation rates
2.2.- Associations between young stars, H-alpha, and atomic/molecular gas
2.3.- Star formation laws and thresholds
3. H II Regions in Local Group Galaxies and Chemical Abundance Determinations (1 hour)
3.1.- Converting HII emission line spectra into chemical abundances
3.2.- Abundance trends in spiral and irregular galaxies
3.3.- Current problems with emission line abundances
4. Self-Consistent Chemical Evolution in Local Group Galaxies and Implications for the Evolution of Galaxies (2 hours)
4.1.- Simple theories of chemical evolution
4.2.- The comparison of gas mass fractions with abundances
4.3.- Relative abundances as constraints
4.4.- Comparison with recent star formation histories 
4.5.- Making sense of it all

"DWARF GALAXIES"

Prof. Dr. Gary Da Costa
Mt Stromlo & Siding Spring Observatory

1. Introduction.
1.1.- What is an "old stellar population" and how do we recognize it?
1.2.- Indicators of age and their applicability to resolved stellar populations
1.3.- Case study: the Old Populations of the LMC and SMC - implications from both the cluster and field populations.
2. The dSph and dE galaxies of the Local Group.
2.1.- Properties and Star Formation Histories of:
Galactic dSph companions
M31 dE and dSph companions
Tucana - isolated Local Group dSph
3. What can be inferred about the formation and evolution of this class of galaxies?
4. The dIrrs of the Local Group (excluding the SMC).
4.1.- Properties and Characteristics
4.2.- The role of dwarfs such as Phoenix and LGS3 in linking dIrr and dSph/dE galaxies
5. Dwarf Galaxies beyond the Local Group.
5.1.- Properties and Characteristics of dwarf members of nearby groups.
5.2.- Case study: dSph galaxies in the M81 Group.

“STELLAR EVOLUTION”

Prof. Dr. Cesare Chiosi
Universita di Padova

1. Introduction
2. Stellar Evolution at different Metallicities
3. Advances Phases of Stellar Evolution
3.1.- Low and Intermediate Mass Stars
3.2.- Massive Stars
4. Cepheids
4.1.- Structure
4.2.- The Period-Luminosity relation