Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias
La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain)
November 17th - 28th, 1997


-Extragalactic radio astronomy.
George Miley, Sterrewacht Leiden, Netherlands
-Radio Astronomy using the Internet.
Heinz Andernach, Univ. Guanajuato, Mexico
-Infrared surveys.
Charlie Telesco, Univ. Florida, USA
Deborah Levine, ESA Villafranca, Madrid, Spain
-Visible & UV.
Piero Benvenuti, ST-ECF - Munich, Germany
Daniel Golombek, STScI, Baltimore, USA
-High energies.
Andy Fabian, IoA, Cambridge, UK
-High energies.
Hermann Brunner, Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam, Germany

Extragalactic radio astronomy
George Miley, Sterrewacht Leiden, Netherlands

1.- Introduction.
    1.1.- Historical Review.
    1.2.- Introduction to Active Galaxies.

2.- Techniques.
    2.1.- Radio Telescopes.
    2.2.- Radio Interferometry.

3.- Extragalactic Radio Sources.
    3.1.- Extended Extragalactic Radio Sources and Synchrotron Jets.
    3.2.- Synchrotron Emission.

4.- Compact Extragalactic Radio Sources.
    4.1.- Unified Models of Active Galaxies.

5.- Radio Sources and Cosmological Probes.
    5.1- Luminosity Functions.
    5.2.-Future Possibilities in Radio Astronomy.

Radio Astronomy using the Internet
Heinz Andernach, Univ. Guanajuato, Mexico

1.- Various Observing Techniques and its Implications.
    1.1.- Single dishes vs. interferometers: angular resolution, field of view, spatial frequencies, sidelobes, dynamic range, lobe-shifts, .....
    1.2.- Scanning methods: cross-scans, on-off, rasters in RA-DEC and AZ-EL, atmospheric effects, multifeed technique, mosaicing.
    1.3.- Intercomparison of different observations and pitfalls.
    1.4.- Miscellaneous: confusion limit, detection limit as function of source extent; map extent and sky extent of sources
    1.5.- Polarization and rotation measure: dependence on angular resolution and wavelength, Galactic and intrinsic part, "screwy light?"

2.- Radio Surveys and Optical Identification.
    2.1- Surveys from low to high frequencies: coverage and content.
    2.2.- The good and bad of nomenclature: PKS/IAU convention vs. the chaos of names in radio astronomy; present IAU recommendations.
    2.3.- Radio source structures and where to look for the ID: objetive criteria vs. surprising examples.
    2.4.- Galactic plane surveys and content: radio stars, PN, SNR, HII regions, up to galaxies in the Zone of Avoidance.
    2.5.- The Veron-Cetty & Veron 1983 compilation and beyond.

3.-Integrated Source Parameters on the Web.
    3.1.- Catalogues, compilation catalogues and sources lists: early attempts: Dixon,PKSCAT90; Andernach's collection; the CDS and ADC archives; how to find specific catalogues.
    3.2.- NVSS, FIRST (and WENSS??) search engines.
    3.3.- Databases: NED, SIMBAD, EOLS, CATS.

4.- uv data, Images and (a wee bit on) Spectral Lines.
    4.1.- uv data: the WSRT/La Palma and VLA archives (ATNF?)
    4.2.- SkyView Radio Surveys.
    4.3.- FIRST, NVSS survey and map servers, WENSS? 6C? perl scripts for bulky map requests.
    4.4.- Miscellaneous: DRAGNs gallery page of P. Leahy; etc.
    4.5.- (The scarcity of ...) Web resources on spectral line data: CDS catalogues, HI-related data LEDA; etc.

5.- A specific exercise and a view to the Future.
    5.1.- Exercise (tbd): using a maximum of net resources the students will be asked to extract a sources sample defined by certain parameters and find radio data, radio spectra, optical IDs, as well as previous literature for sources in the sample.
    5.2.- The Future: new planned large-scale surveys (MOST etc.); "automatic" checking and ingression of new data into databases; HF surveys beyond the VLA upgrade; HI survey at Parkes; SZ surveys for distant clusters and H_o; etc.

Infrared surveys
Charlie Telesco, Univ. Florida, USA

1.- The rationale for IR sky surveys.
    1.1.- How they expand our knowledge
    1.2.- The role of serendipity
2.- Hard choices.
    2.1.- Depth versus coverage
    2.2.- Groundbased surveys versus Spacebased surveys
3.- Some key results: IRAS and COBE
4.- Some key results: ISO
5.- The future: some early results, some speculations
    5.1.- DENIS, 2MASS, and WIRE
    5.2.- SIRTF, FIRST, and NGST
Deborah Levine, ESA Villafranca, Madrid, Spain
1.- Access to IR databases (mixed demo and lecture).
    1.1- What databases are (or will soon be) out there: IRAS, COBE, MSX, WIRE, 2MASS, DENIS, ISO.
    1.2.- What type of data is in these archives? In what formats?
    1.3.- What is the mechanism for access?
    1.4.- Demo of accessing and displaying some forms of data.
2.- Tricks of the Trade (all lecture)
    2.1.- The basics - units commonly used in IR data, IR mag scales, etc.
    2.2.- The IR sky - confusion noise in general, cirrus, zody backgrounds.
    2.3.- IR detectors - coping with flux dependant responsitivity changes and other peculiarities.
    2.4.- Specific issues relevant to COBE, IRAS, and ISO data.
3.- Using IRAS, COBE, ... data (all demo).
    3.1.- How to use IRSKY (demo). General picture of the IR sky using IRAS image and catalog data. Pitfalls of using the data ?
    3.2.- How to use IRAS HiRes data ?
    3.3.- How to use IRAS scan data (xscanpi or addscan) ?
    3.4.- Other data available online (COBE...).
4.- Using ISO Satellite files, SWS and LWS data (mostly demo).
    4.1.- What if FITS binary - how to read it in IDL?
    4.2.- Quick-look tools.
    4.3.- Using the Satellite data files to get pointing info, etc.
    4.4.- Using ISAP to reduce spectrometer AAR.
    4.5.- Using SIA.

5.- Using ISOCAM and ISOPHOT data (mostly demo).
    5.1.- Reducing CAM data in IDL - basic steps.
    5.2.- Using CAMIA - more sophisticated reduction, transient processing.
    5.3.- Using PIA - assesing data quality and understanding the state of the calibration.
Visible & UV
Piero Benvenuti, ST-ECF - Munich, Germany

1.- Introduction - some facts and some historical notes.
    1.1.- Why is the visible range still important in astronomy? What do we want to learn from it?
    1.2.- Same questions (with variations) for the UV range.
    1.3.- Evolution of optical detectors - how did it change our concept of an "archive".
    1.4.- State of the art of optical-UV detectors - trends - data rates and data volumes.
    1.5.- Data analysis methods and their software implementations (with few reflections on past religion wars...)

2.- What is an "Archive" in the optical - UV domain?
    2.1.- "Archive" versus "Catalogues".
    2.2.- The photographic surveys - past, present and future.
    2.3.- The key role of IUE.
    2.4.- Space versus ground-based science operations.
    2.5.- "The" issue: instrument and data calibration.

3.- Study case (1: HST).
    3.1.- HST Instruments and their data.
    3.2.- A bit of history and a few lessons learned.
    3.3.- Current trends in the HST Archive activities.
    3.4.- HST Archive Science.

4.- Study case (2: VLT).
    4.1.- The VLT end-to-end Data Flow Model.
    4.2.- The ESO/ECF "Archive environment" concept.
    4.3.- VLT Archive Science.

5.- The Future.
    5.1.- Where is technology taking us?
    5.2.- Again on calibration: are we doing it right?
    5.3.- Predictive instrument calibration: learning a lesson from other wavelength ranges.
Daniel Golombek, STScI, Baltimore, USA

1. Catalogs and Archives
    1.1. - Where things are and how to access them
    1.2.- How do I find the data I was looking for + name resolvers and basic data
    1.3.- Surfing and reading CD-ROMs

2. Data Formats and tools
    2.1.- FITS files
            + need for standards
            + contents
            + reading and using
    2.2.- Other formats

3. HST instruments
    3.1.- Overview of the data products
    3.2.- Tools to work with the data
                + introduction to IRAF and STSDAS
                + other systems
    3.3- Reduction and analysis of HST data

4. The HST Data Archive
    4.1.- Introduction
    4.2.- Contents
    4.3.- Browsing
5. Multi-wavelength Archival Research
    5.1.- How to get it all together

High energies
Andy Fabian, IoA, Cambridge, England
1. Introduction
    1.1 The X-ray Sky
    1.2 X-ray telescopes and instruments from a semi-theoretical point of view.
2. X-ray Binaries
    2.1 White dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes
    2.2 Accretion and radiation processes
    2.3 Massive X-ray binaries
    2.4 Low mass X-ray binaries
3. Pulsars and Supernova Remnants
    3.1 X-rays from Supernovae
    3.2 X-ray emission from pulsars
    3.3 The X-ray evolution of SNR

4. Active Galactic Nuclei and the X-ray Background
    4.1 The central engine
    4.2 The hard X-ray continuum
    4.3 Reflection, iron lines and warm absorbers
    4.4 Absorption and the XRB

5. Clusters of Galaxies
    5.1 The intracluster medium
    5.2 The density profile and baryon fraction
    5.3 The core and cooling flows
    5.4 Clusters and the cosmic power spectrum
    5.5 X-ray evolution
High energies
Hermann Brunner, Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam, Germany
1.- Introduction
    1.1.- Review of recent X-ray astronomy satellites.
    1.2.- General data analysis and calibration techniques.

2.- X-ray data & software in public archives.
    2.1.- Guide through public archives of X-ray data from recent satellite missions (ROSAT, ASCA,XTE...)
    2.2.- Getting aquainted with X-ray data analysis software packages.

3.- Some sample data analysis sessions.
    3.1.- Soft, hard, or absorbed: Model fitting of AGN X-ray spectra.
    3.2.- Extended X-ray emission: Studying clusters of galaxies.
    3.3.- Variability: Bursts, flares, and periods.
4.- Source detection and identification: Catalogues and databases.
    4.1.- Extended and point source detection algorithms.
    4.2.- Determining upper limits, fluxes, and hardness ratios.
    4.3.- Working with source catalogue & databases.
    4.4.- Cross-correlating data from different spectral ranges.

5.- What the future holds?
    5.1.- Future X-ray satellite missions (AXAF, XMM ...).
    5.2.- Standardized data formats & new ways of structuring data.
    5.3.- Some thoughts on the future of astronomy and the Internet.
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