XIII CANARY ISLANDS WINTER SCHOOL OF ASTROPHYSICS

"COSMOCHEMISTRY
The Melting Pot of Elements"

Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias
Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain)
November 19th - 30th, 2001

Programme

Molecules in the Cosmos
Prof. J. Cernicharo, CSIC, SPAIN

Element Abundances in Nearby Galaxies
Dr. D. R. Garnett, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, USA

Stellar Abundances
Prof. D. L. Lambert, The University of Texas at Austin, USA

Nucleosynthesis in Stars
Prof. N. Langer, Utrecht University, THE NETHERLANDS

Chemical Evolution of Galaxies and Instracluster Medium
Prof. F. Matteucci, Universitá di Trieste, ITALY

Element Abundances Through the Cosmic Ages
Dr. M. Pettini, University of Cambridge, UK

Abundance Determinations in HII Regions and Planetary Nebulae
Prof. G. Stasinska, DAEC, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, FRANCE

Primordial Alchemy: From the Big Bang to the Present Universe
Prof. G. Steigman, The Ohio State University, USA


Molecules in the Cosmos
Prof. J. Cernicharo, CSIC, SPAIN

Introduction
   - Where molecules are found?
   - What information can we retry from the observation of molecular lines?
   - Molecular Astrophysics : What we need to interpret molecular observations?

The Formation of Molecules in the Interstellar Medium
   - The physical conditions of interstellar clouds
   - An overview of the needs for specific chemical models of the ISM
   - Basic chemical processes in the ISM. The role of cosmic rays
   - Formation of Molecular Hydrogen on the dust grains
   - Photodissociation

Chemistry in Dense Clouds
   -Chemical time evolution
   -Basic chemical networks
   -Isotope Fractionation in cold dark clouds
   -Shocks in star forming regions. The chemistry of high temperature regions

Chemistry in the Circumstellar Envelopes of Evolved Stars
  - Molecule formation under thermal equilibria
  - The chemical evolution of circumstellar envelopes
  - Post-AGB objects
  - Planetary Nebula

Molecular emission/absorption at all Wavelength Domains
  - Rotational transitions. Examples
  - Vibrational transitions. Examples
  - Electronic transitions. Examples

The interpretation of molecular spectra
  - Radiative transfer in the ISM and the CSM
  - Collisional and Radiative excitation
  - LVG models
  - The need for non-local radiative transfer codes

Element Abundances in nearby Galaxies
Dr. D. R. Garnett, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, USA
- Observational methods for measuring metallicity:
    spectroscopy of H II regions and planetary nebulae
    spectroscopy of individual stars
    stellar photometry and color magnitude diagrams
    spectrum synthesis of galaxy spectra
    colors from surface photometry of galaxies
- Abundances in nearby dwarf irregular and dwarf elliptical galaxies
    overall metallicities and spatial distribution
    element abundance ratios
    confrontation with evolution models
- Abundances in spiral galaxies
    metallicities and metallicity gradients
    unbarred vs barred spirals
    element abundance ratios
    bulges
    confrontation with evolution models
- Open questions
    infall
    loss of metals to IGM
    depletion onto grains
    abundance inhomogeneities/mixing/enrichment timescales
    evolution of metallicity gradients


Stellar Abundances
Prof. D. L. Lambert, The University of Texas at Austin, USA

1 Stellar Compositions and Nucleosynthesis.
Introduction
    Summary of contemporary ideas about nucleosynthesis
    Some representative stellar compositions

Determination of stellar compositions - some basics
    Preparation in basic atomic/molecular physics
    Contemporary astrophysics

A few elementary ideas
     How can an element escape detection?
     Are all lines equally useful?
     What is a curve of growth?
     How can one get the abundance X/H without measuring hydrogen lines?

2. Model stellar atmosphere
Basic assumptions
Fundamental parameters
Abundance analyses
Beyond the basic assumptions
     Introduction to non-LTE
     Other refinements
Some design guidelines
3. Stellar compositions and cosmochemistry
Galactic chemical evolution
   Stellar evolution
The golden rule  - when and when not?
     Main sequence stars
     Giants
 
Big Bang Nucleosynthesis - What may stellar astronomers contribute?
     Lithium in metal-poor stars
     A lithium problem? Stars or Universe?
4.   Lithium, beryllium, and boron 
Introduction to their nucleosynthesis
Summary and discussion of  observations
Galactic Chemical Evolution

Factors at play
Observations vs theory

5. Galactic Chemical Evolution (continued)
Constraining the contributions of the supernovae
     Lighter elements vs iron-peak elements
     The r-process
 
Exploring the contributions of the red giants
     The s-process


Nucleosynthesis in Stars
Prof. N. Langer, Utrecht University, THE NETHERLANDS

            1) Thermonuclear Reaction rates
            2) Formation of Oxygen to Iron
            3) Supernova (I and II) nucleosynthesis
            4) heavy elemets: s- and r-process
            5) Speculations and open questions
               (e.g.: p-process, nu-process, GRB nucleosynthesis, ...)

Chemical Evolution of Galaxies and Intracluster Medium
Prof. F. Matteucci, Universitá di Trieste, ITALY

1. Basic Parameters: birthrate function, stellar nucleosynthesis, gas flows

2. Basic equations for chemical evolution, analytical solutions and numerical models

3. The chemical evolution of galaxies of different morphological type: observations and model predictions for our Galaxy

4. The chemical evolution of ellipticals and irregulars

5. The chemical enrichment of the intracluster medium


Element Abundances Through the Cosmic Ages
Dr. M. Pettini, University of Cambridge, UK

1. Overview and methods for measuring abundances.

2. Abundances in the Interstellar Medium of the Milky Way The importance of dust.

3. Abundances in Lyman Break Galaxies -- the precursors of today's bulges and ellipticals?

4. Damped Lyman alpha systems -- fresh clues to the origin of elements

5. The Intergalactic medium. Do we need Pop III stars? Summary and future prospects.

Abundance Deteminations in HII Regions and Planetary Nebulae
Prof. G. Stasinska, DAEC, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, FRANCE

    1 basics of abundance determinations of heavy elements in photoionized nebulae
            - direct empirical methods
            - statistical empirical methods
            - photoionization models

    2 main problems
            - atomic data
            - reddening correction
            - nebular geometry
            - temperature inhomogeneities
            - abundances from forbidden lines vs abundances from recombination lines
            - depletion by dust grains, etc ...

    3 the determination of the helium abundance and its problems
            - in HII regions, including giant HII regions
            - in planetary nebulae the determination of isotopic ratios

    4 observational results on abundances: distribution of abundances in the disk of our Galaxy
            - HII regions
            - planetary nebulae

    5 observational results on abundances:planetary nebulae populations
            - planetary nebulae in the Galactic bulge
            - planetary nebulae of the Galactic halo
            - extragalactic planetary nebulae

Primordial Alchemy: From the Big Bang to the Present Universe
Prof. G. Steigman, The Ohio State University, USA

1. Overview of the physics of the early evolution of the Universe.
2. The physics of primordial nucleosynthesis and the predicted abundances in the standard model.
3. The observational status of the primordial abundances.
4. Confrontation between the theoretical predictions and the observational data.
5. BBN in non-standard models of Cosmology and Particle Physics.