**"Dark Matter
and Dark Energy in the Universe"**

Instituto de Astrofísica
de Canarias

Puerto de la Cruz,Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain)

November 18th - 29th, 2002

__Programme__

**Inflation,
flat Universe, dark matter and energy**
*Prof. L. Krauss,
Case Western Reserve University, USA*

**Cosmic
Background Fluctuations: cosmological parameters**
*Dr. P. Mauskopf,
University of Cardiff, Wales, UK*

**Large
scale surveys and cosmic structure**
*Prof. J. Peacock,
Royal Observatory, UK*

**Dark
matter particles: laboratory searches**
*Prof. B. Sadoulet,
University of California, USA*

*Galaxy
kinematics and dark matter**Prof. R. Sancisi,
Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, ITALY*

**Supernovae
and the accelerating Universe**
*Prof. B. Schmidt,
The Australian National University, AUSTRALIA*

**Gravitational
lensing as a probe of structure**
*Prof. P. Schneider,
Universitaet Bonn, GERMANY*

**Galaxy
formation in dark matter cosmologies**

*Prof. J. Silk, University
of Oxford, UK*

**Inflation,
flat universe, dark matter and energy**

*Prof. L. Krauss, Case Western Reserve University,
USA*

1. The standard model and Dark Matter: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly2. The standard model: probing cosmic parameters

3. The equation of state of the Universe, the cosmological constant, and dark energy

4. Dark energy and Inflation

5. The future of the Universe

1: CMB temperature anisotropiesPrimordial anisotropies and inflation2: CMB temperature power spectra and dependence on cosmological parameters

types of initial fluctuations: scalar (density), tensor (gravity waves) (list for completeness - isocurvature, defects)

evolution of anisotropies in expanding universe

matter-radiation equality

photon-baryon fluid

recombinationScale factor and geometry of the universe3: CMB Observations and constraints on parameters

Relative peak heights and baryon density ('baryon drag')

Tilt, Ho, reionization, cosmological constant and dark matterPre-20004: Secondary CMB temperature anisotropies

BOOM/MAXIMA/DASI

MAP/PLANCK

Combinations of CMB data with supernovae, LSS, Ho measurementsreionization5: CMB polarization - the final frontier

SZ effect and galaxy clusters

baryon fraction from SZ measurements

constraints on cosmological parameters from SZ surveysorigin of polarization

predictions for polarization power spectra

measurements and future experiments

1.- The perturbed universe.

- Linear gravitational instability

- Effects of radiation

- Damping of fluctuations

- Power spectra and correlations

- The CDM model

2.- The nonlinear universe.

- Spherical collapse

- Lagrangian evolution

- N-body techniques

- N-body results

- Approximations to nonlinear clustering

3.- Galaxy surveys om 2D and 3D.

- Interpretarion of angular clustering

- Redshift space and its distortions

- Cosmic variance

- Progress in galaxy surveys

4.- Clustering and bias of galaxies.

- Small-scale clustering and dependence on galaxy type

- Redshift-space clustering

- Evolution of clustering

- Simple bias models

- The halo model

5.- Measuring the cosmological model

- The galaxy power spectrum

- Relating LSS and CMB

- Breaking parameter degeneracies

- The standard model

- Future issues in galaxy clustering

**Dark
matter particles: laboratory searches**

*Prof. B. Sadoulet, University of California,
USA*

1.- Astronomical evidence for non baryonic dark matter

Omegabaryon vs Omegatotal

Large Structure and Microwave background

MACHOs (some details about searches)

Efficiency of gravitational collapse and clusters

2.- Particle candidates

Particles never in equilibrium

Axions + situation of searches

WIMPzillas

Particles which were once in equilibrium

Relativistic decoupling: Neutrinos

Review of mass measurements

Neutrinos and cosmology

Non relativistic WIMPs

3.- Detection of WIMPs

Direct Detection and indirect detection

Direct detection

Challenges

Techniques Scintillators

Cryogenic detectors (link to CMBR)

Liquid Xenon

Low pressure gas

4.- Detection of WIMPs (2)

Direct detection

Results DAMA

CDMS

EDELWEISS

ZEPLIN

Projects

Indirect Detection: situation and future

Gamma

Neutrino

Positrons/antiprotons

5.- Dark Matter in the more global context

Dark Matter/Dark Energy Do we understand gravity?

Detecting Dark Energy in the laboratory?

Experimental tests of gravity

Torsion balance experiments

Compact objects

Gravitational waves

Compact objects

Primordial (link to CMBR)

*Galaxy
kinematics and dark matter*

*Prof. R. Sancisi, Osservatorio Astronomico di
Bologna, ITALY*

Main topics

Gas distribution and kinematics in spiral galaxies

Derivation of rotation curves

General properties of rotation curves

Distribution of dark and luminous matter

Correlations with luminosity, surface brightness and morphological type.The course will include

an introduction with historical remarks

a discussion of the maximal disk hypothesis

a discussion of the presence or not of central cusps

the Tully-Fisher relation -alternatives (MOND) to DMThere will also be a demonstration of the derivation of a velocity field and rotation curve

from an HI data cube and of the analysis of the rotation curve with decomposition into

bulge, disk and halo components.

**Supernovae
and the accelerating Universe**

*Prof. B. Schmidt, The Australian National University,
AUSTRALIA*

History of the Expanding UniverseThe discovery of Expanding UniverseSupernovae and Distance Measurement

Cosmological Models

Early attempts to fit cosmological Models

Measuring Distances in Astronomy not using SNeTheory of SN Ia/ SN II explosionMeasuring distances at large Z with Supernovae

Observational Characteristics

Measuring distances to SN II

Measuring distances to SN Ia

current State of Hubble ConstantDiscoveryMeasurement of Acceleration

K-corrections

Selection Effects

Extinction

Lensing

EvolutionCurrent DataFuture Experiments and opportunities

Implied constraints in Omega_Lambda equation of state

Problems with current state of data

Can we believe the SN Ia results?Nearby SN Ia

Large Groundbased Samples of SN at z=0.5

The SNAP experiment

Basics of gravitational lensingThe bending angle and the lens equationWeak gravitational lensing

Multiple images, magnification, distortion, time delay

Examples of strong lensing phenomena

Lens statistics

Limits on compact dark objects in the UniverseDistortion of faint galaxy imagesLensing by clusters of galaxies

Measurements of shapes and shear

Problems in measuring shear, and their solutions

Magnification effects

Galaxy-galaxy lensingThe mass of galaxy clustersCosmic shear -- lensing by the Large-Scale Structure

Giant luminous arcs and multiple images

Mass reconstructions from weak lensing

Is there a universal dark matter profile in clusters?Light propagation is an inhomogeneous UniverseCosmic shear -- results, and future goals

Cosmic shear: the principle

Second-order cosmic shear measures

Cosmological expectations

Mass (Shear) detection of (dark?) clustersCosmic shear surveys

First results

Cosmology from cosmic shear

The pain with intrinsic shape correlations ...

... Pain killer: (photometric) redshifts

Three-point statistics

1.- Initial conditions from the very early universe.

Measurements of the primordial power spectrum of density fluctuations.

The role of dark matter.

Linear theory of density perturbations.

2.- Nonlinear theory.

Spherical solution.

Zeldovich pancakes.

The mass function of halos.

Baryon dissipation.

3.- Disk galaxy formation.

Analytic approaches.

Simulations.

Feedback.

4.- Elliptical galaxy formation.

Starbursts and mergers.

Analytic approaches.

Simulations.

5.- The high redschift universe.

Star formation history.

Diffuse background light.

Protogalaxies, outflows and the IGM.