XIV CANARY ISLANDS WINTER SCHOOL OF ASTROPHYSICS

"Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe"

Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias
Puerto de la Cruz,Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain)

November 18th - 29th, 2002

Programme

Inflation, flat Universe, dark matter and energy
Prof. L. Krauss, Case Western Reserve University, USA

Cosmic Background Fluctuations: cosmological parameters
Dr. P. Mauskopf, University of Cardiff, Wales, UK

Large scale surveys and cosmic structure
Prof. J. Peacock, Royal Observatory, UK

Dark matter particles: laboratory searches
Prof. B. Sadoulet, University of California, USA

Galaxy kinematics and dark matter
Prof. R. Sancisi, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, ITALY

Supernovae and the accelerating Universe
Prof. B. Schmidt, The Australian National University, AUSTRALIA

Gravitational lensing as a probe of structure
Prof. P. Schneider, Universitaet Bonn, GERMANY

Galaxy formation in dark matter cosmologies
Prof. J. Silk, University of Oxford, UK
 


Inflation, flat universe, dark matter and energy
Prof. L. Krauss, Case Western Reserve University, USA

1. The standard model and Dark Matter: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

2. The standard model: probing cosmic parameters

3. The equation of state of the Universe, the cosmological constant, and dark energy

4. Dark energy and Inflation

5. The future of the Universe

Cosmic Background Fluctuations: cosmological parameters
Dr. P. Mauskopf, University of Cardiff, Wales, UK
1: CMB temperature anisotropies
Primordial anisotropies and inflation
types of initial fluctuations: scalar (density), tensor (gravity waves) (list for completeness - isocurvature, defects)
evolution of anisotropies in expanding universe
matter-radiation equality
photon-baryon fluid
recombination
2: CMB temperature power spectra and dependence on cosmological parameters
Scale factor and geometry of the universe
Relative peak heights and baryon density ('baryon drag')
Tilt, Ho, reionization, cosmological constant and dark matter
3: CMB Observations and constraints on parameters
Pre-2000
BOOM/MAXIMA/DASI
MAP/PLANCK
Combinations of CMB data with supernovae, LSS, Ho measurements
4: Secondary CMB temperature anisotropies
reionization
SZ effect and galaxy clusters
baryon fraction from SZ measurements
constraints on cosmological parameters from SZ surveys
5: CMB polarization - the final frontier
origin of polarization
predictions for polarization power spectra
measurements and future experiments
Large scale surveys and cosmic structure
Prof. J. Peacock, Royal Observatory, UK

        1.- The perturbed universe.
            - Linear gravitational instability
            - Effects of radiation
            - Damping of fluctuations
            - Power spectra and correlations
            - The CDM model

        2.- The nonlinear universe.
            - Spherical collapse
            - Lagrangian evolution
            - N-body techniques
            - N-body results
            - Approximations to nonlinear clustering

        3.- Galaxy surveys om 2D and 3D.
            - Interpretarion of angular clustering
            - Redshift space and its distortions
            - Cosmic variance
            - Progress in galaxy surveys

        4.- Clustering and bias of galaxies.
            - Small-scale clustering and dependence on galaxy type
            - Redshift-space clustering
            - Evolution of clustering
            - Simple bias models
            - The halo model
 

        5.- Measuring the cosmological model
            - The galaxy power spectrum
            - Relating LSS and CMB
            - Breaking parameter degeneracies
            - The standard model
            - Future issues in galaxy clustering

Dark matter particles: laboratory searches
Prof. B. Sadoulet, University of California, USA

         1.- Astronomical evidence for non baryonic dark matter

                    Omegabaryon vs Omegatotal
                    Large Structure and Microwave background
                    MACHOs (some details about searches)
                    Efficiency of gravitational collapse and clusters

        2.- Particle candidates

                    Particles never in equilibrium
                        Axions + situation of searches
                        WIMPzillas

                    Particles which were once in equilibrium
                        Relativistic decoupling: Neutrinos
                            Review of mass measurements
                            Neutrinos and cosmology
                        Non relativistic WIMPs

        3.- Detection of WIMPs

                    Direct Detection and indirect detection
                    Direct detection
                        Challenges
                         Techniques Scintillators
                                Cryogenic detectors (link to CMBR)
                                Liquid Xenon
                                Low pressure gas

        4.- Detection of WIMPs (2)
 

                    Direct detection
                        Results DAMA
                                    CDMS
                                    EDELWEISS
                                    ZEPLIN
                        Projects

                    Indirect Detection: situation and future
                        Gamma
                        Neutrino
                        Positrons/antiprotons

        5.- Dark Matter in the more global context

                    Dark Matter/Dark Energy Do we understand gravity?
                    Detecting Dark Energy in the laboratory?
                    Experimental tests of gravity
                       Torsion balance experiments
                        Compact objects
                        Gravitational waves
                                Compact objects
                                 Primordial (link to CMBR)
 

Galaxy kinematics and dark matter
Prof. R. Sancisi, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, ITALY

Main topics

Gas distribution and kinematics in spiral galaxies
Derivation of rotation curves
General properties of rotation curves
Distribution of dark and luminous matter
Correlations with luminosity, surface brightness and morphological type.

The course will include

an introduction with historical remarks
a discussion of the maximal disk hypothesis
a discussion of the presence or not of central cusps
the Tully-Fisher relation -alternatives (MOND) to DM

There will also be a demonstration of the derivation of a velocity field and rotation curve
from an HI data cube and of the analysis of the rotation curve with decomposition into
bulge, disk and halo components.

Supernovae and the accelerating Universe
Prof. B. Schmidt, The Australian National University, AUSTRALIA

History of the Expanding Universe
The discovery of Expanding Universe
Cosmological Models
Early attempts to fit cosmological Models
Measuring Distances in Astronomy not using SNe
Supernovae and Distance Measurement
Theory of SN Ia/ SN II explosion
Observational Characteristics
Measuring distances to SN II
Measuring distances to SN Ia
current State of Hubble Constant
Measuring distances at large Z with Supernovae
Discovery
K-corrections
Selection Effects
Extinction
Lensing
Evolution
Measurement of Acceleration
Current Data
Implied constraints in Omega_Lambda equation of state
Problems with current state of data
Can we believe the SN Ia results?
Future Experiments and opportunities
Nearby SN Ia
Large Groundbased Samples of SN at z=0.5
The SNAP experiment
Gravitational lensing as a probe of structure
Prof. P. Schneider, Universitaet Bonn, GERMANY
Basics of gravitational lensing
The bending angle and the lens equation
Multiple images, magnification, distortion, time delay
Examples of strong lensing phenomena
Lens statistics
Limits on compact dark objects in the Universe
Weak gravitational lensing
Distortion of faint galaxy images
Measurements of shapes and shear
Problems in measuring shear, and their solutions
Magnification effects
Galaxy-galaxy lensing
Lensing by clusters of galaxies
The mass of galaxy clusters
Giant luminous arcs and multiple images
Mass reconstructions from weak lensing
Is there a universal dark matter profile in clusters?
Cosmic shear -- lensing by the Large-Scale Structure
Light propagation is an inhomogeneous Universe
Cosmic shear: the principle
Second-order cosmic shear measures
Cosmological expectations
Mass (Shear) detection of (dark?) clusters
Cosmic shear -- results, and future goals
Cosmic shear surveys
First results
Cosmology from cosmic shear
The pain with intrinsic shape correlations ...
... Pain killer: (photometric) redshifts
Three-point statistics
Galaxy formation in dark matter cosmologies
Prof. J. Silk, University of Oxford, UK

        1.- Initial conditions from the very early universe.
            Measurements of the primordial power spectrum of density fluctuations.

            The role of dark matter.

            Linear theory of density perturbations.

        2.- Nonlinear theory.
            Spherical solution.

            Zeldovich pancakes.

            The mass function of halos.

            Baryon dissipation.

        3.- Disk galaxy formation.
            Analytic approaches.

            Simulations.

            Feedback.

        4.- Elliptical galaxy formation.
            Starbursts and mergers.

            Analytic approaches.

            Simulations.

        5.- The high redschift universe.
            Star formation history.

            Diffuse background light.

            Protogalaxies, outflows and the IGM.