XV CANARY ISLANDS WINTER SCHOOL OF ASTROPHYSICS

"Payload and Mission Definition in Space Sciences"

Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias
Puerto de la Cruz,Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain)

November 17th - 28th, 2003

Programme

Measurement of electromagnetic fields and particles in space
Prof. Andre Balogh, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, UK

Planetary observations and landers
Prof. Angioletta Coradini, C.N.R - IASF, ITALY

EUV and UV imaging and spectroscopy from space
Prof. Richard Harrison, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK

Design issues for space science missions
Prof. Yves Langevin, Universite Paris-Sud, FRANCE

Space infrared astronomy
Prof. Mark McCaughrean, Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam, GERMANY

X ray and Gamma instrumentation
Prof. Xavier Barcons, Instituto de Física de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), SPAIN

Spacecraft and ground segment
Dr. Gerhard Schwehm, European Space Agency, ESTEC, THE NETHERLANDS

Visible light telescopes and instruments for space observations
Dr. Michael Perryman, European Space Agency, ESTEC, THE NETHERLANDS
Dr. Thierry Appourchaux, European Space Agency, ESTEC, THE NETHERLANDS

Dr. José Miguel Rodríguez Espinosa, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias - Gran Telescopio Canarias, SPAIN


Measurement of electromagnetic fields and particles in space
Prof. Andre Balogh, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, UK

1. The space environment: an overview of fields and particles in space

A brief description of the fields, waves, plasma- and energetic particle populations in different regions of space: in the heliosphere, the Earth’s magnetosphere, other planetary environments.

2. Measurements of DC magnetic fields

Physical and operational principles of different types of magnetometers, calibration, interpretation, examples.

3. Measurements of electromagnetic waves

DC and AC electric field and electromagnetic wave measurements, principles of instruments, examples

4. Plasma measurements

Principles of electrostatic analysers for ion and electron measurements, time-of flight techniques for ion species and charge state determination, detectors, examples.

5. Energetic particle measurements

Principles of solid state detectors, particle telescopes, position sensing detectors, scintillators and Cerenkov detectors for high energy ions and electrons, examples

6. Typical mission profiles, spacecraft and payloads: past, present and future

Characteristics of space physics missions, requirements on spacecraft, mission orbits; example missions to include Helios, Voyager, ISEE (from the past), Ulysses, ISTP, Cluster, ACE (from the present), STEREO, MMS, Solar Orbiter (for the future).

Planetary observations and landers
Prof. Angioletta Coradini, C.N.R - IASF, ITALY

Lecture 1

The surface of planetary objects through remote sensing measurements. Basic knowledge
Imaging and Spectroscopy. Origin of spectra of minerals in the Visible and IR Regions.

Lecture 2

Ultraviolet Visible and Near IR Reflectance Spectroscopy: laboratory spectra and comparison with the Remote sensing data.

Lecture 3

Imaging spectroscopy . Basic technology and challenge in developing different instruments. Instrument development and calibration.

Lecture 4

From Orbit to in situ measurements: how to investigate the surface and the subsurface of a planet .

Lecture 5

In situ measurements: how to study the nature of different materials, to detect their elemental and mineralogical composition. The suite of experiment needed. Vertical versus horizontal mobility: difficulties and possible achievements.

EUV and UV imaging and spectroscopy from space
Prof. Richard Harrison, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK

1. An Introduction

The electromagnetic spectrum and the definition of EUV/UV
Transmission of the Earth's Atmosphere: The Need to Go into Space
Why bother with the EUV/UV range?

2. Early Astronomical Observations in the UV

The opening of the field with the V-2 and Aerobee rockets
The OSO and OAO satellites

3. The basic processes leading to EUV/UV radiation from space plasmas

General introduction of generation of EUV/UV radiation: continua, edges and lines
The tools provided by UV observations: plasma diagnostic methods
The need for atomic data and the quest for the perfect calibration

4. EUV/UV Instrumentation in space

Optical techniques - spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation
How to detect EUV/UV photons
A guide to EUV/UV space missions: from Copernicus and IUE to FUSE and SOHO.

5. A tour of the UV Solar System

EUV/UV observations of the Sun - revealing the restless solar atmosphere
Probing planetary atmospheres using UV radiation, including the Earth
UV diagnostics of cometary processes

6. Beyond the Solar System

Hot and cool stars - probing the hottest plasmas and stellar activity
Identifying the constituents of interstellar gas
UV observations of extinction and reflection by interstellar dust
Hot stellar distributions within other galaxies and UV emission from AGN

7. The Future

New missions and new goals

Design issues for space science missions
Prof. Yves Langevin, Université Paris-Sud, FRANCE

1. The evolution of space science missions: past, present, future

2. Launchers, launch strategies

direct planetary windows
launcher capabilities and the declination problem
lunar options
weak stability boundaries and halo orbits

3. Gravity assist strategies

basic principles
window matching
examples: BepiColombo (Chemical), Solar Orbiter (Chemical), the search for ROSETTA back-ups

4. Electric propulsion

low thrust basics
combinations of low thrust and gravity assists: 1st cut search strategies and optimisation examples: BepiColombo, Solar Orbiter
The outer solar system: Nuclear Electric propulsion

5. in-situ missions, sample return missions

retargetting
aerocapture and atmospheric entry
atmosphereless bodies: soft landers and penetrators
science payload and system mass: the example of BepiColombo
the window matching problem for sample return missions

Space infrared astronomy
Prof. Mark McCaughrean, Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam, GERMANY

1.- Introduction

The discovery of the infrared: Herschel and beyond
Why infrared astronomy? Low temperatures, dust, redshift, chemistry
The scientific promise of infrared observations: "origins"
Ground-based infrared astronomy: a brief overview
Why go into space? Atmospheric transmission, stability, background issues

2.- Infrared space telescope design

The basic requirement: a cold telescope
Cryogenic cooling: active versus passive
Optical designs and materials
Orbital considerations

3.- Detectors and instrumentation technology

Important basic parameters
Bolometers, photoconductors, heterodyne detectors
Imaging arrays
Optics, mechanisms

4.- Past, present, and future missions: scientific highlights and goals

The first survey: IRAS
The first observatory: ISO
The new observatories: SIRTF, ASTRO-F, Herschel
The deep future: SPICA, SAFIR, Darwin, TPF

5.- The JWST as detailed case study

The past, present, and future history of the mission
The science goals
Mission architecture
Telescope design
Instrument payload
The politics of international collaboration

X ray and Gamma instrumentation
Prof. Xavier Barcons, Instituto de Física de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), SPAIN

1.- Sources and physical processes in X/Gamma-ray Astronomy

A guided tour through the high-energy Universe: stars, accreting binaries, SN and SNR, galaxies, clusters, AGNs, GRBs and the cosmic background.

Physical processes in high-energy astrophysics: synchrotron radiation, bremsstrahlung, pairs, Compton scattering, etc. Emission and absorption in warm and hot plasmas. Nuclei.

2 and 3. - Fundamentals of X-ray and Gamma-ray space astronomical observatories

X-ray telescopes: collimators, grazing incidence X-ray telescopes, multilayers, lobster & pore optics.

Lambda-dispersion (grating) X-ray spectrometers

Gamma-ray optics: multiplexing and coded masks, Compton telescopes

X-ray detectors: Proportional counters, Micro-channel plates, CCDs, micro-calorimeters, Superconducting Tunneling Junctions, Transition Edge Sensors, etc.

Gamma-ray detectors

4.- The development of space high-energy astronomy

The early days: Discovery of Sco X-1 and the X-ray background, rockets and ballons

The orbiting observatories: UHURU, HEAO-1, ARIEL V etc. First all-sky observations.

X-ray observatories: Einstein, Exosat, Rosat, ASCA, RXTE, BeppoSAX, Chandra, XMM-Newton

Gamma-ray observatories: GRANAT, CGRO, INTEGRAL, SWIFT

5.- The future of space high-energy astronomy

Planned/under study missions: Large X-ray observatories (CON-X, XEUS, GEN-X), Large solid-angle survey missions (DUET, DUO, ROSITA), X-ray interferometry (MAXIM), Gamma-ray observatories (GLAST)

XEUS: A detailed example on how science requirements drive a mission design

Spacecraft and ground segment
Dr. Gerhard Schwehm, European Space Agency, ESTEC, THE NETHERLANDS

1.-

a) Scientific Project Selection - Payload Selection Process in ESA
How is a new Project selected?
Payload selection – I will address some of the new aspects evolving for selecting the scientific payload for future missions (and how it was done until now).

b) The Project Team Organization
Responsibilities, Interfaces ‘day-to-day’ activities

c) The Paperwork
Interface Documents, Reporting, etc.

2.- The Spacecraft

Subsystems, Payload – S/C interfaces, AIV (Assembly, Integration and Verification), Interface tests, etc.

3 – 4.- The Ground Segment

Communication with the S/C: NASA’s Deep Space Network, ESA’s Deep Space Antenna in New Norcia, Australia; Frequency Bands, Link Budgets; Spacecraft Operations, Science Operations, Data Distribution, Data Archives, Knowledge Management

5.- Case Studies

Rosetta, Mars Express, SMART 1 and comparison to Astrophysics Missions (e.g. Herschel/Planck, Eddington) and NASA Discovery Missions.

Visible light telescopes and instruments for space observations
Dr. Michael Perryman, European Space Agency, ESTEC, THE NETHERLANDS
Dr. Thierry Appourchaux, European Space Agency, ESTEC, THE NETHERLANDS

Dr. José Miguel Rodríguez Espinosa, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias - Gran Telescopio Canarias, SPAIN


M. Perryman

1.- Space astrometry I: Hipparcos
2.- Space astrometry II: Gaia

T. Appourchaux

1.- Visible light space instrumentation: "Space optical instrument: why and how?"
2.- The SOHO case: "The Luminosity Oscillations Imager aboard SOHO"

J.M. Rodríguez Espinosa

1.- Ground based telescopes in the era of Space Astronomy. The GTC 10m telescope