XVIII CANARY ISLANDS WINTER SCHOOL OF ASTROPHYSICS

"THE EMISSION LINE UNIVERSE "

Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias
Puerto de la Cruz,Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain)

November 20th - 1st December, 2006

Programme

UV/Optical lines
Grazyna Stasinska, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, FRANCE

Emission Line Surveys
Mauro Giavalisco, Space Telescope Science Institute, USA

Galactic objects
Stephen Eikenberry, University of Florida, USA

AGN / QSO
Bradley Peterson, The Ohio-State University, USA

Primeval galaxies
Daniel Schaerer, University of Geneve, SWITZERLAND

Star Formation
Piero Madau, UCO/Lick Observatory, USA

Chemical evolution
Francesca Matteucci, Department of Astronomy, University of Trieste, Italy

Tutorial
Sergio Pascual (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain)
Angel Bongiovanni, Bernabé Cedrés, Héctor Castañeda, Ana Pérez (IAC, Spain)

What emission line can tell us?
Grazyna Stasinska, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, FRANCE

1. Basic physics of ionized nebulae and emission line production

1.1 Ionisation and recombination processes
1.2 Heating and cooling processes
1.3 Line production mechanisms
1.4 Atomic data
1.5 Equilibrium vs. out of equilibrium
1.6 Transfer of radiation
1.7 Photoionization theory in a nutshell
1.8 Photoionization versus shock ionization

2. Diagnostics based on emission lines in the entire spectral range

2.1 Plasma diagnostics: electron temperature, density
2.2 Ionic and elemental abundances - direct methods
2.3 Elemental abundances - statistical methods
2.4 Individual stars - T*, ionizing fluxes
2.5 Stellar populations - ionizing fluxes IMF, star formation rate

3. Photoionization modelling

3.1 why do a model?
3.2 Global spectra of spherical nebulae
3.3 Slit spectra of spherical nebulae
3.4 Modelling aspherical nebulae with a pseudo-3D code
3.5 Modelling aspherical nebulae with a full 3D code
3.6 Photodissociation regions
3.7 X-ray spectra

4. Some pending questions and some strategies to solve themDereddening

4.1 Underlying stellar absorption
4.2 Dust
4.3 Temperature fluctuations
4.4 Chemical inhomogeneities
4.5 Escape of ionizing radiation
4.6 Is photoionization enough?

Emission Line Surveys
Mauro Giavalisco, Space Telescope Science Institute, USA

1. Methodology of line surveys

1.1 Historical review
1.2 Typical experimental design and instrumentation
1.3 Sensitivity and systematics

2. Scientific motivations for line surveys

3. Review of past surveys and their results

4. Modern surveys:

4.1 Scientific goals

4.1.1 The identification of galaxies at a given redshift
4.1.2 Targeting specific sources (e.g. Lya blobs, Lya emitters)
4.1.3 Constraints to the time line of cosmic reionization

4.2 Results, and their implications

5. Future works

Galactic objects
Stephen Eikenberry, University of Florida, USA

1. Review of diagnostic optical/IR emission lines

2. Nebular emission lines in the Galaxy

2.1 HII regions
2.2 Planetary nebulae
2.3 Supernova remnants

3. Stellar emission lines in the Galaxy

3.1 Protostars, YSOs, etc.
3.2 Be, B[e], and LBV stars
3.3 Wolf-Rayet stars

4. Compact objects & emission lines

4.1 Cataclysmic variables
4.2 Black hole & neutron star binaries

5. Summary and future prospects

AGN / QSO
Bradley Peterson, The Ohio-State University, USA

1. Taxonomy of Active Galaxies

1.1 Seyferts, Quasars, and Blazars
1.2 Radio-Loud vs. Radio-Quiet Objects
1.3 LINERs and related objects

2. Physics of Active Nuclei

2.1 Black Holes and Accretion Disks

2.1.1 Fundamental concepts
2.1.2 Physical evidence

2.2 The Broad-Line Region

2.2.1 Physical diagnostics
2.2.2. Photoionization modeling
2.2.3 Line profiles

2.3 The Narrow-Line Region

2.3.1 Physical diagnostics
2.3.2 Line profiles and kinematics

3. Emission-Line Variability and Reverberation Mapping

3.1 Line and continuum variability in AGNs
3.2 Reverberation mapping: technique
3.3 Reverberation mapping: results

3.3.1 Ionization stratification
3.3.2 BLR radius-luminosity relationship
3.3.3 Measuring black hole masses

4. Towards a Coherent Model

4.1 AGN unification: concepts
4.2 AGN (intrinsic) absorption
4.3 A phenomenological disk/wind model

5. Quasars and Cosmology

5.1 Finding distant quasars (emphasis on emission lines)
5.2 Space density and luminosity function of quasars
5.3 Mass function and cosmic evolution of AGNs and the black hole population

Primeval galaxies
Daniel Schaerer, University of Geneve, SWITZERLAND

    1. Population III stars and galaxies

    1.1 Star formation and the IMF
    1.2 Stellar properties: spectra, nucleosynthesis, final stages
    1.3 Observable signatures of PopIII and early stellar populations

    2. Lyman-alpha physics:

    2.1 ISM emission
    2.2 Radiation transfer effects
    2.3 Dust destruction
    2.4 Lessons from nearby starbursts and z~3 LBGs
    2.5 IGM attenuation, Gunn-Peterson effect
    2.6 Proximity effect, source clustering
    2.7 Lya luminosity function and probes of reionisation        

    3. Distant/primeval galaxies: searches and observations

    3.1 Search techniques
    3.2 Lyman-alpha emitters

    3.3.Deep searches in the field and using gravitational lensing
    3.4 z>6 galaxies: current results, ongoing searches and future prospects

    3.5 Connections between PopIII stars and: reionisation, the near-IR background, halo stars abundance pattern and others

    Star Formation from z=20 to z=0
    Piero Madau, UCO/Lick Observatory, USA

      1. Early structure formation

      1.1 Cosmological preliminaries
      1.2 Thermal history of the IGM
      1.3 Jeans and filtering mass scales
      1.4 Evolution of dark matter and baryon fluctuations
      1.5 First non-linear objects

      2. First light and reionization

      2.1 Press-Schechter formalism and the abundance of dark matter halos
      2.2 Minihalos, stars, black holes
      2.3 Molecular chemistry, fragmentation, and star formation
      2.4 21-cm tomography

      3. Radiative and mechanical feedback

      3.1 Cosmological reionization
      3.2 Propagation of ionization fronts in the IGM
      3.3 Propagation of supernova outflows in the IGM. Metal Enrichment

      4. Galaxies at high redshift

      4.1 Opacity of the IGM
      4.2 Cosmic star formation history
      4.3 Semianalytic models of galaxy formation
      4.4 Extragalactic background light from UV to FIR

    Chemical evolution
    Francesca Matteucci, Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Italy

    1. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    1.1 Basic ingredients (nucleosynthesis, IMF, SFR, infall/outflow)
    1.2 How to build a detailed model of chemical evolution
    1.3 Modelling the Hubble Sequence
    1.4 Theoretical cosmic star formation rate and SN rates

    2. Interpretation of data

    2.1 Spiral galaxies: abundance gradients from HII regions and Planetary Nebula emission lines. Constraints on the formation and evolution of abundance gradients in the Milky Way and in other spirals. Derivation of the star formation rate and gas distribution along disks: constraints on the formation of galactic disks
    2.2 Extragalactic HII regions: models and data. Constraints on their star formation history: short and intense starbursts or low and continuous star formation?
    2.3 Information from broad emission lines in QSOs: interpretation of data as a function of redshift. [alpha/Fe] diagnostic for understanding the QSO chemical evolution
    2.4 Abundances in the ICM. Fe production from ellipticals. Comparison between models and observations

    Tutorial
    Sergio Pascual (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain)
    Angel Bongiovanni, Bernabé Cedrés, Héctor Castañeda, Ana Pérez (IAC, Spain)