Secondary halo bias through cosmic time. I. Scaling relations and the connection with the cosmic web

Balaguera-Antolínez, Andrés; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D.; Favole, Ginevra
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Astronomy and Astrophysics

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Context. The spatial distribution of dark matter halos carries cosmological and astrophysical information. Cosmological information can be considered to be contained in the connection between halo main properties and the large-scale halo bias, while the astrophysical information would be encoded in the scaling relations between halo properties. The combination of these two contributions leads to the effect of secondary halo bias.
Aims: Our goal is to measure the signal of secondary halo bias as a function of a variety of intrinsic and environmental halo properties and to characterize its statistical significance as a function of cosmological redshift.
Methods: Using fixed and paired N-body simulations of dark-matter halos - the UNIT simulation - with masses above ∼1011 M⊙h−1 identified over a wide range of cosmological redshifts (0 < z < 5), we explored the behavior of the scaling relations among different halo properties. We included novel environmental properties based on the halo distribution as well as the underlying dark-matter field. We implemented an object-by-object estimator of large-scale effective bias and tested its validity against standard approaches. With a bias assigned to each tracer, we performed a statistical analysis aimed at characterizing the distribution of the bias and the signal of the secondary halo bias.
Results: We show how the halo scaling relations linking direct probes of the halo potential well do not depend on the environment. On the contrary, links between the halo mass and the so-called set of secondary halo properties are sensitive to the cosmological environment, mainly to under-dense regions. We show that the signal of secondary bias is derived statistically from secondary correlations beyond the standard link to the halo mass.
Conclusions: We show that the secondary bias arises through nonlocal and/or environmental properties related either to the halo distribution or to the properties of the underlying dark-matter field. In particular, properties such as the tidal field (a measure of the anisotropy of the density field) and the local Mach number (a measure of the local kinetic temperature of the halo distribution) generate the signals of the secondary bias with the highest significance. We propose applications of the assignment of individual bias for the generation of mock catalogs containing the signal of secondary bias, as well as a series of cosmological analyses aimed at mining large galaxy datasets.