Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad Gobierno de Canarias Universidad de La Laguna CSIC Centro de Excelencia Severo Ochoa

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Evidence of the Missing Baryons in the local Universe, around halos of bright galaxies

Author/s: C. Hernández-Monteagudo, Y.-Z. Ma, F. S. Kitaura, W. Wang, R. Génova-Santos, J. Macías Pérez y D. Herranz

Reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 191301 | Link

Each point represents one individual measurement of the baryon fraction relative to the Universal baryon content, at a given distance around BOSS galaxies. Red points correspond to detections, positive signal with its corresponding error bar, whereas green points correspond to negative signals. The two blue curves represent predictions for the total baryon content based in two different sets of simulations. It is expected that the regions enclosed by a distance of 25 armcin around these galaxies should contain half of the total baryons of the Universe out to z=0.12 (the maximum redshift covered by the galaxy catalogue used in this analysis), as shown by the blue curves. Out to this distance our measurements trace the total baryon content of the Universe.
Each point represents one individual measurement of the baryon fraction relative to the Universal baryon content, at a given distance around BOSS galaxies. Red points correspond to detections, positive signal with its corresponding error bar, whereas green points correspond to negative signals. The two blue curves represent predictions for the total baryon content based in two different sets of simulations. It is expected that the regions enclosed by a distance of 25 armcin around these galaxies should contain half of the total baryons of the Universe out to z=0.12 (the maximum redshift covered by the galaxy catalogue used in this analysis), as shown by the blue curves. Out to this distance our measurements trace the total baryon content of the Universe.

The total baryon content in the Universe is a well-defined quantity, in addition to being one of the most important cosmological parameters. A variety of observations (CMB, Ly-alpha forest, Big Bang nucleosynthesis) indicate that all baryons amount to around 4% of the total matter-energy content of the Universe. However, in the local Universe the contribution of all the observed components represents around 2% of the total. Therefore, half of the baryons in the local Universe remain elusive. In this article we have presented measurements of the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect in Planck data towards BOSS galaxies, that are compatible with the detection of all baryons in and around these galaxies (including the missing baryons), which represents around half of the total baryons in the Universe out to z=0.12, the maximum redshift sampled by these galaxies.

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