XX CANARY ISLANDS WINTER SCHOOL OF ASTROPHYSICS

"LOCAL GROUP COSMOLOGY "

Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias
Puerto de la Cruz,Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain)

November 17th - 28th, 2008

Programme

Detailed programme

The detailed programme for each series of lectures will cover the following topics.

The missing satellite crisis in the Cold Dark Matter cosmology
James Bullock, University of California Irvine, USA

Lecture 1: From inflation to dark matter substructure
• The (Dark Energy+) Cold Dark Matter Power Spectrum
• Dark Matter Halo Collapse Times & Accretion Histories
• Hierarchical Assembly and Merger Histories
• Surviving Substructure
• Nonstandard models (Warm Dark Matter / Designer Inflation)

Lecture 2: Subhalo redux
• Historical Perspective
• Missing Satellites Circa 1999
• Current results from ~ billion particle simulations
a) subhalo counts
b) subhalo densities
• How cold is cold? The minimum mass of CDM halos.

Lecture 3: Observational status
• The Local Group Census Circa 2004
• The Resolved Star Revolution: Rediscovering the Local Group
• The Revolution Ahead (why you picked the right field)
• Testing Models
a) Counting satellites
b) What We Can and Cannot Determine from Line-of-SIght Velocity Studies

Lecture 4: Broader context
• Is the Satellite Problem Different than the Luminosity Function Problem?
• How the Satellite Problem Informs our Understanding of other Components:
a) The Stellar Halo
b) The Formation and Survival of Galactic Disks

Lecture 5: Milky Way satellites as dark matter laboratories
• Testing Warm Dark Matter with Milky Way Dwarfs
a) Phase space densities and the microphysical nature of dark matter
b) Resolving the cusp/core problem with astrometry
• Discovering Cold Dark Matter with Milky Way Dwarfs
a) Annihilation signals from tightly packed dark matter
b) The infamous boost

The formation of the Milky Way in the Cold Dark Matter paradigm
Ken Freeman, Australian National University, AUSTRALIA

Lecture 1
• Overview of the Milky Way.
• Signatures from different stages in its evolution. Recovery of fossil information

Lecture 2
• Dynamical theory of interaction and accretion.
• Effects of accretion on the structure of the Milky Way

Lecture 3
• Bulges in the context of CDM.
• Dynamics and formation of the Galactic bulge.

Lecture 4
• Stellar data: the kinds of data needed for fossil recovery, sources of data, techniques for measuring kinematics, chemical abundances and ages.
• Sources of models: isochrone, stellar atmosphere, Galactic.
• Overview of major surveys in progress and in near future.

Lecture 5
• The Galactic disk: thin disk and thick disk.
• Stellar orbits, tests of heating and diffusion processes.
• Substructure and resonance phenomena.
• Disk reconstruction: chemical tagging.

The Andromeda galaxy as cosmological laboratory
Puragra Guhathakurta, UCO / Lick Observatory, USA

Lecture 1: Introduction
• The Lambda-CDM hierarchical structure formation paradigm
• Two contrasting approaches to studying galaxy formation and evolution: direct look-back versus fossil record
• Brief historical review of studies of the Andromeda galaxy's resolved stellar populations

Lecture 2: Profile of the Cannibal's Belly: M31's Extended Stellar Halo
• Wide-field imaging and Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy
• Needles in a haystack: Red giants in M31's sparse outer halo
• Radial metallicity gradient; detailed chemical abundances from coadded spectra
• Ultra-deep HST/ACS imaging: Star formation history

Lecture 3: The Cannibal's Other Internal Organs: Structural Components of M31
• Inner spheroid versus outer halo
• Disentangling the disk from the spheroid
• Central bar and boxy bulge

Lecture 4: Undigested Entrails: Substructure in M31
• Statistical properties of tidal streams in the context of hierarchical galaxy formation
• Forensic reconstruction of the giant southern stream and associated tidal debris: orbit, internal dynamics, and metallicity of the progenitor dwarf galaxy

Lecture 5: Today's Survivors: Dwarf Satellite Galaxies
• Slightly damaged M31 satellites: NGC 205 and M32
• Other dwarf elliptical satellites of M31: NGC 147 and NGC 185
• Dwarf spheroidal satellites of M31
• Ultra-low luminosity Local Group satellites in the context of the hierarchical galaxy formation paradigm


Stellar tidal streams in the Local Group
Rodrigo Ibata, Strasbourg Observatory, FRANCE

Lecture 1: Introduction
• Streams as cosmological tools
• Testing gravity

Lecture 2: Theoretical background
• Theory of tides and tidal dissolution
• Orbital games and N-body modelling

Lecture 3: Case studies
• Palomar 5
• The Sagittarius stream
• The giant stellar stream in Andromeda

Lecture 4: Spatially unresolved streams and sub-structure
• In the Milky Way
• In external galaxies

Lecture 5: Finding streams and the future
• Techniques for detecting streams
• Prospects and challenges for 2020: GAIA, LSST, etc

Tidal dwarf galaxies in the Local Group as test of fundamental physics
Pavel Kroupa, Angelander-Institut für Astronomie, GERMANY

Lecture 1: Theoretical ideas on the origin of the stellar IMF
• The shape of the IMF in the solar neighbourhood

Lecture 2: The IMF elsewhere
• Does the IMF vary?

Lecture 3: The IGIMF theory
• Applications of the IGIMF theory:
- the mass-metallicity relation of galaxies
- the radial Halpha star-foprmation cutoff in disk galaxies
- the gas-consumption time scales of galaxies and implications for fundamental physics

Lecture 4: The Milky Way and Andromeda dSph satellite galaxies
• The formation of tidal-dwarf galaxies (TDGs)

Lecture 5: Rotation curves of young TDGs
• Implications for fundamental physics

Dark matter content and tidal effects in Local Group dwarf galaxies
Steven R. Majewski, University of Virginia, USA

Lecture 1:
Overview and history of the observed structure of local dSph galaxies

Lecture 2:
Dynamical evidence for dark matter in dSphs and the dark matter structure of dSph galaxies

Lecture 3:
Dark matter debated: A history of proposed alternative dynamical models for dSphs and introduction to tides

Lecture 4:
Tidal effects in dSphs and reconciling the structure and dynamics of dSphs with both dark matter and tides

Lecture 5:
The special case of the Magellanic Clouds and the origin of the Magellanic Stream

Dark halos, disk galaxies, and the satellite population
Julio Navarro, University of Victoria, CANADA


Does the Milky Way's halo live up to Cosmological expectations?
Hans-Walter Rix, Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, GERMANY

Lecture 1
How to Make 3D, 6D and 7D Maps of the Stellar Distribution in the Milky Way

Lecture 2
The Ability of SDSS, PanSTARRS and GAIA to Map Stars in the Milky Way

Lecture 3
Stellar Sub-structure and Ultra-faint Satellites in the Outskirts of the Milky Way: Are Cosmological Expectations Met?

Lecture 4
Kinematics of discrete sources: What can we learn about the Gravitational Potential and the Orbit Distribution?

Lecture 5
What should we do if we had the phase-space coordinates and metallicities of a billion stars in the Milky Way.