ANDES, the high resolution spectrograph for the ELT: science case, baseline design and path to construction

Marconi, A.; Abreu, M.; Adibekyan, V.; Alberti, V.; Albrecht, S.; Alcaniz, J.; Aliverti, M.; Allende Prieto, C.; Alvarado Gómez, J. D.; Amado, P. J.; Amate, M.; Andersen, M. I.; Artigau, E.; Baker, C.; Baldini, V.; Balestra, A.; Barnes, S. A.; Baron, F.; Barros, S. C. C.; Bauer, S. M.; Beaulieu, M.; Bellido-Tirado, O.; Benneke, B.; Bensby, T.; Bergin, E. A.; Biazzo, K.; Bik, A.; Birkby, J. L.; Blind, N.; Boisse, I.; Bolmont, E.; Bonaglia, M.; Bonfils, X.; Borsa, F.; Brandeker, A.; Brandner, W.; Broeg, C. H.; Brogi, M.; Brousseau, D.; Brucalassi, A.; Brynnel, J.; Buchhave, L. A.; Buscher, D. F.; Cabral, A.; Calderone, G.; Calvo-Ortega, R.; Canto Martins, B. L.; Cantalloube, F.; Carbonaro, L.; Chauvin, G.; Chazelas, B.; Cheffot, A. -L.; Cheng, Y. S.; Chiavassa, A.; Christensen, L.; Cirami, R.; Cook, N. J.; Cooke, R. J.; Coretti, I.; Covino, S.; Cowan, N.; Cresci, G.; Cristiani, S.; Cunha Parro, V.; Cupani, G.; D'Odorico, V.; de Castro Leão, I.; De Cia, A.; De Medeiros, J. R.; Debras, F.; Debus, M.; Demangeon, O.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Dionies, F.; Doyon, R.; Dunn, J.; Ehrenreich, D.; Faria, J. P.; Feruglio, C.; Fisher, M.; Fontana, A.; Fumagalli, M.; Fusco, T.; Fynbo, J.; Gabella, O.; Gaessler, W.; Gallo, E.; Gao, X.; Genolet, L.; Genoni, M.; Giacobbe, P.; Giro, E.; Gonçalves, R. S.; Gonzalez, O.; González Hernández, J. I.; Gracia Témich, F.; Haehnelt, M. G.; Haniff, C.; Hatzes, A. et al.
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Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy IX

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The first generation of ELT instruments includes an optical-infrared high resolution spectrograph, indicated as ELT-HIRES and recently christened ANDES (ArmazoNes high Dispersion Echelle Spectrograph). ANDES consists of three fibre-fed spectrographs (UBV, RIZ, YJH) providing a spectral resolution of ∼100,000 with a minimum simultaneous wavelength coverage of 0.4-1.8 µm with the goal of extending it to 0.35-2.4 µm with the addition of a K band spectrograph. It operates both in seeing- and diffraction-limited conditions and the fibre-feeding allows several, interchangeable observing modes including a single conjugated adaptive optics module and a small diffraction-limited integral field unit in the NIR. Its modularity will ensure that ANDES can be placed entirely on the ELT Nasmyth platform, if enough mass and volume is available, or partly in the Coudé room. ANDES has a wide range of groundbreaking science cases spanning nearly all areas of research in astrophysics and even fundamental physics. Among the top science cases there are the detection of biosignatures from exoplanet atmospheres, finding the fingerprints of the first generation of stars, tests on the stability of Nature's fundamental couplings, and the direct detection of the cosmic acceleration. The ANDES project is carried forward by a large international consortium, composed of 35 Institutes from 13 countries, forming a team of more than 200 scientists and engineers which represent the majority of the scientific and technical expertise in the field among ESO member states.