Astronomy and Astrophysics
Aims: CAPOS, the bulge Cluster APOgee Survey, addresses this key topic by observing a large number of BGCs, most of which have only been poorly studied previously. Even their most basic parameters, such as metallicity, [α/Fe], and radial velocity, are generally very uncertain. We aim to obtain accurate mean values for these parameters, as well as abundances for a number of other elements, and explore multiple populations. In this first paper, we describe the CAPOS project and present initial results for seven BGCs.
Methods: CAPOS uses the APOGEE-2S spectrograph observing in the H band to penetrate obscuring dust toward the bulge. For this initial paper, we use abundances derived from ASPCAP, the APOGEE pipeline.
Results: We derive mean [Fe/H] values of −0.85 ± 0.04 (Terzan 2), −1.40 ± 0.05 (Terzan 4), −1.20 ± 0.10 (HP 1), −1.40 ± 0.07 (Terzan 9), −1.07 ± 0.09 (Djorg 2), −1.06 ± 0.06 (NGC 6540), and −1.11 ± 0.04 (NGC 6642) from three to ten stars per cluster. We determine mean abundances for eleven other elements plus the mean [α/Fe] and radial velocity. CAPOS clusters significantly increase the sample of well-studied Main Bulge globular clusters (GCs) and also extend them to lower metallicity. We reinforce the finding that Main Bulge and Main Disk GCs, formed in situ, have [Si/Fe] abundances slightly higher than their accreted counterparts at the same metallicity. We investigate multiple populations and find our clusters generally follow the light-element (anti)correlation trends of previous studies of GCs of similar metallicity. We finally explore the abundances of the iron-peak elements Mn and Ni and compare their trends with field populations.
Conclusions: CAPOS is proving to be an unprecedented resource for greatly improving our knowledge of the formation and evolution of BGCs and the bulge itself.
Low- to intermediate-mass (M < 8 solar masses, Ms) stars represent the majority of stars in the Cosmos. They finish their lives on the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) - just before they form planetary nebulae (PNe) - where they experience complex nucleosynthetic and molecular processes. AGB stars are important contributors to the enrichment of the