Astronomy and Astrophysics
Aims: We characterize the planetary system by using all the data available from CHEOPS and TESS space missions. We use the flexible pointing capabilities of CHEOPS to follow up the transits of all the planets in the system, including the fifth transiting body.
Methods: After updating the host star parameters by using the results from Gaia eDR3, we analyzed 16 and 43 transits observed by CHEOPS and TESS, respectively, to derive the planets' physical and orbital parameters. We carried out a timing analysis of the transits of each of the planets of HD 108236 to search for the presence of transit timing variations.
Results: We derived improved values for the radius and mass of the host star (R★ = 0.876 ± 0.007 R0 and M★ = 0.867-0.046+0.047M⊙). We confirm the presence of the fifth transiting planet f in a 29.54 d orbit. Thus, the HD 108236 system consists of five planets of Rb = 1.587±0.028, Rc = 2.122±0.025, Rd = 2.629 ± 0.031, Re = 3.008 ± 0.032, and Rf = 1.89 ± 0.04 [R⊕]. We refine the transit ephemeris for each planet and find no significant transit timing variations for planets c, d, and e. For planets b and f, instead, we measure significant deviations on their transit times (up to 22 and 28 min, respectively) with a non-negligible dispersion of 9.6 and 12.6 min in their time residuals.
Conclusions: We confirm the presence of planet f and find no significant evidence for a potential transiting planet in a 10.9 d orbital period, as previously suggested. Further monitoring of the transits, particularly for planets b and f, would confirm the presence of the observed transit time variations. HD 108236 thus becomes a key multi-planetary system for the study of formation and evolution processes. The reported precise results on the planetary radii - together with a profuse RV monitoring - will allow for an accurate characterization of the internal structure of these planets. CHEOPS detrended light curves are only available in electronic format the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.cds.unistra.fr (ftp://184.108.40.206) or via https://cdsarc.cds.unistra.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/668/A117
The search for life in the universe has been driven by recent discoveries of planets around other stars (known as exoplanets), becoming one of the most active fields in modern astrophysics. The growing number of new exoplanets discovered in recent years and the recent advance on the study of their atmospheres are not only providing new valuable