Numerical simulations of dark matter haloes produce polytropic central cores when reaching thermodynamic equilibrium

Sánchez Almeida, Jorge; Trujillo, Ignacio
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Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

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Self-gravitating astronomical objects often show a central plateau in the density profile (core) whose physical origin is hotly debated. Cores are theoretically expected in N-body systems of maximum entropy, however, they are not present in the canonical N-body numerical simulations of cold dark matter (CDM). Our work shows that despite this apparent contradiction between theory and numerical simulations, they are fully consistent. Simply put, cores are characteristic of systems in thermodynamic equilibrium, but thermalizing collisions are purposely suppressed in CDM simulations. When collisions are allowed, N-body numerical simulations develop cored density profiles, in perfect agreement with the theoretical expectation. We compare theory and two types of numerical simulations: (1) when DM particles are self-interacting (SIDM) with enough cross-section, then the effective two-body relaxation time-scale becomes shorter than the Hubble time resulting in cored DM haloes. The haloes thus obtained, with masses from dwarf galaxies to galaxy clusters, collapse to a single shape after normalization, and this shape agrees with the polytropic density profile theoretically expected. (2) The inner radii in canonical N-body numerical simulations are always discarded because the use of finite-mass DM particles artificially increases the two-body collision rate. We show that the discarded radii develop cores which are larger than the employed numerical softening and have polytropic shape independently of halo mass. Our work suggests that the presence of cores in simulated (or observed) density profiles can used as evidence for systems in thermodynamic equilibrium.
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