Astronomy and Astrophysics
Aims: We quantify the consistency of the results that are obtained with different high- (R ~ 115 000), and ultrahigh- (R ~ 220 000) resolution spectrographs. We also comprehensively studied the effect of using different spectral reduction products of ESPRESSO on the final spectroscopic results.
Methods: We used ultrahigh- and high-resolution spectra obtained with the ESPRESSO, PEPSI, and HARPS spectrographs to measure spectral line characteristics (line depth; line width; and equivalent width, EW) and determined stellar parameters and abundances for a subset of 11 Gaia benchmark stars. We used the ARES code for automatic measurements of the spectral line parameters.
Results: Our measurements reveal that the same individual spectral lines measured from adjacent 2D (spectrum in the wavelength-order space) echelle orders of ESPRESSO spectra differ slightly in line depth and line width. When a long list of spectral lines is considered, the EW measurements based on the 2D and 1D (the final spectral product) ESPRESSO spectra agree very well. The EW spectral line measurements based on the ESPRESSO, PEPSI, and HARPS spectra also agree to within a few percent. However, we note that the lines appear deeper in the ESPRESSO spectra than in PEPSI and HARPS. The stellar parameters derived from each spectrograph by combining the several available spectra agree well overall.
Conclusions: We conclude that the ESPRESSO, PEPSI, and HARPS spectrographs can deliver spectroscopic results that are sufficiently consistent for most of the science cases in stellar spectroscopy. However, we found small but important differences in the performance of the three spectrographs that can be crucial for specific science cases. Based on observations collected at the Paranal Observatory, ESO (Chile) with the ESPRESSO spectrograph at the VLT (ESO runs ID 0102.D-0185(A); 0103.D-0118(A); 0104.D-0362(A)).
Several spectroscopic analyses of stars with planets have recently been carried out. One of the most remarkable results is that planet-harbouring stars are on average more metal-rich than solar-type disc stars. Two main explanations have been suggested to link this metallicity excess with the presence of planets. The first of these, the “self
Stellar spectroscopy allows us to determine the properties and chemical compositions of stars. From this information for stars of different ages in the Milky Way, it is possible to reconstruct the chemical evolution of the Galaxy, as well as the origin of the elements heavier than boron, created mainly in stellar interiors. It is also possible to