The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Guaranteed time observations Data Release 1 (2016-2020)

Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Zechmeister, M.; Caballero, J. A.; Morales, J. C.; Sabotta, S.; Baroch, D.; Amado, P. J.; Quirrenbach, A.; Abril, M.; Aceituno, J.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Azzaro, M.; Barrado, D.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Benítez de Haro, D.; Bergond, G.; Bluhm, P.; Calvo Ortega, R.; Cardona Guillén, C.; Chaturvedi, P.; Cifuentes, C.; Colomé, J.; Cont, D.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Czesla, S.; Díez-Alonso, E.; Dreizler, S.; Duque-Arribas, C.; Espinoza, N.; Fernández, M.; Fuhrmeister, B.; Galadí-Enríquez, D.; García-López, A.; González-Álvarez, E.; González Hernández, J. I.; Guenther, E. W.; de Guindos, E.; Hatzes, A. P.; Henning, Th.; Herrero, E.; Hintz, D.; Huelmo, Á. L.; Jeffers, S. V.; Johnson, E. N.; de Juan, E.; Kaminski, A.; Kemmer, J.; Khaimova, J.; Khalafinejad, S.; Kossakowski, D.; Kürster, M.; Labarga, F.; Lafarga, M.; Lalitha, S.; Lampón, M.; Lillo-Box, J.; Lodieu, N.; López González, M. J.; López-Puertas, M.; Luque, R.; Magán, H.; Mancini, L.; Marfil, E.; Martín, E. L.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Molaverdikhani, K.; Montes, D.; Nagel, E.; Nortmann, L.; Nowak, G.; Pallé, E.; Passegger, V. M.; Pavlov, A.; Pedraz, S.; Perdelwitz, V.; Perger, M.; Ramón-Ballesta, A.; Reffert, S.; Revilla, D.; Rodríguez, E.; Rodríguez-López, C.; Sadegi, S.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. Á.; Sánchez-López, A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Schäfer, S.; Schlecker, M.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Schöfer, P.; Schweitzer, A.; Seifert, W.; Shan, Y.; Skrzypinski, S. L.; Solano, E.; Stahl, O.; Stangret, M.; Stock, S.; Stürmer, J.; Tabernero, H. M. et al.
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Astronomy and Astrophysics

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Context. The CARMENES instrument, installed at the 3.5 m telescope of the Calar Alto Observatory in Almería, Spain, was conceived to deliver high-accuracy radial velocity (RV) measurements with long-term stability to search for temperate rocky planets around a sample of nearby cool stars. Moreover, the broad wavelength coverage was designed to provide a range of stellar activity indicators to assess the nature of potential RV signals and to provide valuable spectral information to help characterise the stellar targets.
Aims: We describe the CARMENES guaranteed time observations (GTO), spanning from 2016 to 2020, during which 19 633 spectra for a sample of 362 targets were collected. We present the CARMENES Data Release 1 (DR1), which makes public all observations obtained during the GTO of the CARMENES survey.
Methods: The CARMENES survey target selection was aimed at minimising biases, and about 70% of all known M dwarfs within 10 pc and accessible from Calar Alto were included. The data were pipeline-processed, and high-level data products, including 18 642 precise RVs for 345 targets, were derived. Time series data of spectroscopic activity indicators were also obtained.
Results: We discuss the characteristics of the CARMENES data, the statistical properties of the stellar sample, and the spectroscopic measurements. We show examples of the use of CARMENES data and provide a contextual view of the exoplanet population revealed by the survey, including 33 new planets, 17 re-analysed planets, and 26 confirmed planets from transiting candidate follow-up. A subsample of 238 targets was used to derive updated planet occurrence rates, yielding an overall average of 1.44 ± 0.20 planets with 1 M⊕ < Mpl sin i < 1000 M⊕ and 1 day < Porb < 1000 days per star, and indicating that nearly every M dwarf hosts at least one planet. All the DR1 raw data, pipeline-processed data, and high-level data products are publicly available online.
Conclusions: CARMENES data have proven very useful for identifying and measuring planetary companions. They are also suitable for a variety of additional applications, such as the determination of stellar fundamental and atmospheric properties, the characterisation of stellar activity, and the study of exoplanet atmospheres.

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