Cosmology and the massive photon frequency shift in the Standard-Model Extension

Spallicci, Alessandro D. A. M.; Helayël-Neto, José A.; López-Corredoira, Martín; Capozziello, Salvatore
Bibliographical reference

European Physical Journal C

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The total red shift z might be recast as a combination of the expansion red shift and a static shift due to the energy-momentum tensor non-conservation of a photon propagating through Electro-Magnetic (EM) fields. If massive, the photon may be described by the de Broglie-Proca (dBP) theory which satisfies the Lorentz(-Poincaré) Symmetry (LoSy) but not gauge-invariance. The latter is regained in the Standard-Model Extension (SME), associated with LoSy Violation (LSV) that naturally dresses photons of a mass. The non-conservation stems from the vacuum expectation value of the vector and tensor LSV fields. The final colour (red or blue) and size of the static shift depend on the orientations and strength of the LSV and EM multiple fields encountered along the path of the photon. Turning to cosmology, for a zero ΩΛ energy density, the discrepancy between luminosity and red shift distances of SNeIa disappears thanks to the recasting of z. Massive photons induce an effective dark energy acting `optically' but not dynamically.
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