Euclid preparation. XXVII. A UV-NIR spectral atlas of compact planetary nebulae for wavelength calibration

Euclid Collaboration; Paterson, K.; Schirmer, M.; Copin, Y.; Cuillandre, J. -C.; Gillard, W.; Gutiérrez Soto, L. A.; Guzzo, L.; Hoekstra, H.; Kitching, T.; Paltani, S.; Percival, W. J.; Scodeggio, M.; Stanghellini, L.; Appleton, P. N.; Laureijs, R.; Mellier, Y.; Aghanim, N.; Altieri, B.; Amara, A.; Auricchio, N.; Baldi, M.; Bender, R.; Bodendorf, C.; Bonino, D.; Branchini, E.; Brescia, M.; Brinchmann, J.; Camera, S.; Capobianco, V.; Carbone, C.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Castellano, M.; Cavuoti, S.; Cimatti, A.; Cledassou, R.; Congedo, G.; Conselice, C. J.; Conversi, L.; Corcione, L.; Courbin, F.; Da Silva, A.; Degaudenzi, H.; Dinis, J.; Douspis, M.; Dubath, F.; Dupac, X.; Ferriol, S.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Fumana, M.; Galeotta, S.; Garilli, B.; Gillis, B.; Giocoli, C.; Grazian, A.; Grupp, F.; Haugan, S. V. H.; Holmes, W.; Hornstrup, A.; Hudelot, P.; Jahnke, K.; Kümmel, M.; Kiessling, A.; Kilbinger, M.; Kohley, R.; Kubik, B.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Ligori, S.; Lilje, P. B.; Lloro, I.; Maiorano, E.; Mansutti, O.; Marggraf, O.; Markovic, K.; Marulli, F.; Massey, R.; Medinaceli, E.; Mei, S.; Meneghetti, M.; Meylan, G.; Moresco, M.; Moscardini, L.; Nakajima, R.; Niemi, S. -M.; Nightingale, J. W.; Nutma, T.; Padilla, C.; Pasian, F.; Pedersen, K.; Polenta, G.; Poncet, M.; Popa, L. A.; Raison, F.; Renzi, A.; Rhodes, J.; Riccio, G.; Rix, H. -W. et al.
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Astronomy and Astrophysics

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The Euclid mission will conduct an extragalactic survey over 15 000 deg2 of the extragalactic sky. The spectroscopic channel of the Near-Infrared Spectrometer and Photometer (NISP) has a resolution of R ~ 450 for its blue and red grisms that collectively cover the 0.93-1.89 µm range. NISP will obtain spectroscopic redshifts for 3 × 107 galaxies for the experiments on galaxy clustering, baryonic acoustic oscillations, and redshift space distortion. The wavelength calibration must be accurate within 5 Å to avoid systematics in the redshifts and downstream cosmological parameters. The NISP pre-flight dispersion laws for the grisms were obtained on the ground using a Fabry-Perot etalon. Launch vibrations, zero gravity conditions, and thermal stabilisation may alter these dispersion laws, requiring an in-flight recalibration. To this end, we use the emission lines in the spectra of compact planetary nebulae (PNe), which were selected from a PN database. To ensure completeness of the PN sample, we developed a novel technique to identify compact and strong line emitters in Gaia spectroscopic data using the Gaia spectra shape coefficients. We obtained VLT/X-shooter spectra from 0.3 to 2.5 µm for 19 PNe in excellent seeing conditions and a wide slit, mimicking Euclid's slitless spectroscopy mode but with a ten times higher spectral resolution. Additional observations of one northern PN were obtained in the 0.80-1.90 µm range with the GMOS and GNIRS instruments at the Gemini North Observatory. The collected spectra were combined into an atlas of heliocentric vacuum wavelengths with a joint statistical and systematic accuracy of 0.1 Å in the optical and 0.3 Å in the near-infrared. The wavelength atlas and the related 1D and 2D spectra are made publicly available.

The full spectral atlas, including Table A.1, and a copy of the spectra are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( via