The Gaia EDR3 view of Johnson-Kron-Cousins standard stars: the curated Landolt and Stetson collections

Pancino, E.; Marrese, P. M.; Marinoni, S.; Sanna, N.; Turchi, A.; Tsantaki, M.; Rainer, M.; Altavilla, G.; Monelli, M.; Monaco, L.
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Astronomy and Astrophysics

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Context. In the era of large surveys and space missions, it is necessary to rely on large samples of well-characterized stars for inter-calibrating and comparing measurements from different surveys and catalogues. Among the most employed photometric systems, the Johnson-Kron-Cousins has been used for decades and for a large amount of important datasets.
Aims: Our goal is to profit from the Gaia EDR3 data, Gaia official cross-match algorithm, and Gaia-derived literature catalogues, to provide a well-characterized and clean sample of secondary standards in the Johnson-Kron-Cousins system, as well as a set of transformations between the main photometric systems and the Johnson-Kron-Cousins one.
Methods: Using Gaia as a reference, as well as data from reddening maps, spectroscopic surveys, and variable stars monitoring surveys, we curated and characterized the widely used Landolt and Stetson collections of more than 200 000 secondary standards, employing classical as well as machine learning techniques. In particular, our atmospheric parameters agree significantly better with spectroscopic ones, compared to other machine learning catalogues. We also cross-matched the curated collections with the major photometric surveys to provide a comprehensive set of reliable measurements in the most widely adopted photometric systems.
Results: We provide a curated catalogue of secondary standards in the Johnson-Kron-Cousins system that are well-measured and as free as possible from variable and multiple sources. We characterize the collection in terms of astrophysical parameters, distance, reddening, and radial velocity. We provide a table with the magnitudes of the secondary standards in the most widely used photometric systems (ugriz, grizy, Gaia, HIPPARCOS, Tycho, 2MASS). We finally provide a set of 167 polynomial transformations, valid for dwarfs and giants, metal-poor and metal-rich stars, to transform UBVRI magnitudes in the above photometric systems and vice-versa.

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