Partially Ionized Plasmas in Astrophysics

Ballester, J. L.; Alexeev, Igor; Collados, Manuel; Downes, Turlough; Pfaff, Robert F.; Gilbert, Holly; Khodachenko, Maxim; Khomenko, E.; Shaikhislamov, Ildar F.; Soler, Roberto et al.
Bibliographical reference

Space Science Reviews, Volume 214, Issue 2, article id. #58, 149 pp.

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Partially ionized plasmas are found across the Universe in many different astrophysical environments. They constitute an essential ingredient of the solar atmosphere, molecular clouds, planetary ionospheres and protoplanetary disks, among other environments, and display a richness of physical effects which are not present in fully ionized plasmas. This review provides an overview of the physics of partially ionized plasmas, including recent advances in different astrophysical areas in which partial ionization plays a fundamental role. We outline outstanding observational and theoretical questions and discuss possible directions for future progress.
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