Magnetic fields are at the base of star formation and stellar structure and evolution. When stars are born, magnetic fields brake the rotation during the collapse of the mollecular cloud. In the end of the life of a star, magnetic fields can play a key role in the form of the strong winds that lead to the last stages of stellar evolution. During the whole adult life of a star, magnetic fields are the origin of stellar activity. Our Sun has magnetic fields that give rise to such spectacular activity that impacts the climate on Earth. The magnetic activity in other stars is, in some cases, of orders of magnitude more intense than the solar one, influencing – often drastically – the transport of chemical species and angular momentum, as well as affecting the possible planetary systems around them.
The aim of this project is the study of the diverse manifestations of the magnetic field that can be observed in the solar atmosphere and in other stars. These include distinct structures as sunspots, weak quiet-sun fields or chromospheric and coronal features such as filaments and prominences. The following research topics have been gradually faced:
1. Structure and evolution of Sunspot magnetic fields.
2. Structure and evolution of quiet Sun magnetic fields.
3. Structure and evolution of the magnetism of the chromosphere and of chromospheric strcutures (promiences, spicules,...)
4. Structure and evolution or coronal loops.
5. Structure and evolution of the Sun's global field. Studies of the activity cycle.
6. Empirical study of propagation of magnetohydrodynamic waves in magnetic structures.
7. Empirical study of energy transfer mechanisms related with the heating of the external atmospheric layers.
8. Empirical study of the influence of partial ionisation in the dynamics of the solar atmosphere.
9. Participation in the European Solar Telescope project.
1. Development of numerical tools to diagnose stellar magnetic fields, both in the surface and in the chromsphere.
2. Study of magnetic fields in stellar prominences.
3. Study of the role of magnetic fields in the late stages of stellar evolution.
- Spiral waves in sunspots: They have been interpreted as magnetoacoustic waves propagating from the interior to the atmosphere following the direction of the magnetic field. We have characterized the magnetic field topology, dismissing the twist of the field lines as the cause of the spiral shape (Felipe et al. 2019).
- Magnetic response to umbral flashes: Simultaneous spectropolarimetric observations of the chromospheric He I 10830 and Ca II 8542 lines have been used to estimate the fluctuations of the magnetic field associated to shock waves. The shocks cause expansion of the magnetic field lines (Houston et al. 2018, including A. Asensio Ramos).
The role of cooling induced by mixing in the mass and energy cycles of the solar atmosphere
In many astrophysical systems, mixing between cool and hot temperature gas/plasma through Kelvin-Helmholtz-instability-driven turbulence leads to the formation of an intermediate temperature phase with increased radiative losses that drive efficient cooling. The solar atmosphere is a potential site for this process to occur with interaction betweenHillier, Andrew et al.
Towards the Identification and Classification of Solar Granulation Structures Using Semantic Segmentation
Solar granulation is the visible signature of convective cells at the solar surface. The granulation cellular pattern observed in the continuum intensity images is characterised by diverse structures e.g., bright individual granules of hot rising gas or dark intergranular lanes. Recently, the access to new instrumentation capabilities has given usDíaz Castillo, S. M. et al.
Optical design of an image-slicer integral field unit with two output slits
The optical design of an integral field unit (IFU) based on image-slicers represents an interesting design exercise because of the small size of the components and the critical parameters to reduce optical aberrations. When the IFU to be designed is also intended to substitute an IFU prototype that is already integrated into a spectropolarimeterVaz Cedillo, Jacinto J. et al.
Polarimetric characterization of segmented mirrors
We study the impact of the loss of axial symmetry around the optical axis on the polarimetric properties of a telescope with segmented primary mirror when each segment is present in a different aging stage. The different oxidation stage of each segment as they are substituted in time leads to non-negligible crosstalk terms. This effect isCollados, M. et al.
Large Ion-neutral Drift Velocities and Plasma Heating in Partially Ionized Coronal Rain Blobs
In this paper we present a numerical study of the dynamics of partially ionized coronal rain blobs. We use a two-fluid model to perform a high-resolution 2D simulation that takes into account the collisional interaction between the charged and neutral particles contained in the plasma. We follow the evolution of a cold plasma condensation as itMartínez-Gómez, David et al.
FarNet-II: An improved solar far-side active region detection method
Context. Activity on the far side of the Sun is routinely studied through the analysis of the seismic oscillations detected on the near side using helioseismic techniques such as phase-shift sensitive holography. Detections made through those methods are limited to strong active regions due to the need for a high signal-to-noise ratio. RecentlyBroock, E. G. et al.
Observational and numerical characterization of a recurrent arc-shaped front propagating along a coronal fan
Context. Recurrent, arc-shaped intensity disturbances were detected by extreme-ultraviolet channels in an active region. The fronts were observed to propagate along a coronal loop bundle rooted in a small area within a sunspot umbra. Previous works have linked these intensity disturbances to slow magnetoacoustic waves that propagate from the lowerSieyra, M. V. et al.
Ambipolar Diffusion in the Lower Solar Atmosphere: Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of a Sunspot
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the solar atmosphere are often performed under the assumption that the plasma is fully ionized. However, in the lower solar atmosphere a reduced temperature often results in only the partial ionization of the plasma. The interaction between the decoupled neutral and ionized components of such a partiallyMacBride, Conor D. et al.
Polarization Accuracy Verification of the Chromospheric LAyer SpectroPolarimeter
We have developed an advanced UV spectropolarimeter called Chromospheric LAyer SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP2), aimed at achieving very high accuracy measurements (<0.1% at 3 σ ) of the linear (Q /I and U /I ) and circular (V /I ) polarizations of the Mg II h and k lines (280 nm). CLASP2 was launched on board a NASA sounding rocket on April 11, 2019Song, Donguk et al.
Evidence of a flare ignited above a low-latitude spotted active region in the ultrafast rotator HK Aqr
We study the magnetic activity in the ultrafast rotator dMe HK Aqr using tomography techniques with high-resolution spectroscopy. We aim to characterize how this magnetic activity appears in a regime of very fast rotation without external forces, given that HK Aqr is, very likely, a single star. We find dark spots located at low latitudes. We alsoMartínez González, María Jesús et al.
The European Solar Telescope
The European Solar Telescope (EST) is a project aimed at studying the magnetic connectivity of the solar atmosphere, from the deep photosphere to the upper chromosphere. Its design combines the knowledge and expertise gathered by the European solar physics community during the construction and operation of state-of-the-art solar telescopesQuintero Noda, C. et al.
Quiet Sun Center to Limb Variation of the Linear Polarization Observed by CLASP2 Across the Mg II h and k Lines
The CLASP2 (Chromospheric LAyer Spectro-Polarimeter 2) sounding rocket mission was launched on 2019 April 11. CLASP2 measured the four Stokes parameters of the Mg II h and k spectral region around 2800 Å along a 200″ slit at three locations on the solar disk, achieving the first spatially and spectrally resolved observations of the solarRachmeler, L. A. et al.
First Light of the Integral Field Unit of GRIS on the GREGOR Solar Telescope
An Integral Field Unit (IFU) based on image slicers has been added to the GREGOR Infrared Spectrograph (GRIS). This upgrade to the instrument makes possible 2D spectropolarimetry in the near-infrared by simultaneously recording the full Stokes profiles of spectral lines (in a given spectral interval) at all the points in the field of view (FOV). ItDominguez-Tagle, C. et al.
Doppler-velocity Drifts Detected in a Solar Prominence
We analyzed multiline observations of a quiescent prominence from the slit spectrograph located at the Ondřejov Observatory. Dopplergrams and integrated intensity maps of the whole prominence were obtained from observations in six spectral lines: Ca II H, Hϵ, Hβ, He I D3, Hα, and Ca II IR. By combining integrated intensity maps with non-LTEZapiór, Maciej et al.
Modeling the thermal conduction in the solar atmosphere with the code MANCHA3D
Context. Thermal conductivity is one of the important mechanisms of heat transfer in the solar corona. In the limit of strongly magnetized plasma, it is typically modeled by Spitzer's expression where the heat flux is aligned with the magnetic field. Aims: This paper describes the implementation of the heat conduction into the code MANCHA3D with anNavarro, A. et al.
Comparative study of Shack-Hartmann configurations for atmospheric turbulence reconstructions in solar adaptive optics
The correction of the phase variations induced by the atmospheric turbulence is one of the most complex problems that an Adaptive Optics (AO) System must deal with, as it must calculate the properties of all the atmosphere traversed by the light from several measures taken by ground-based telescopes. Traditional reconstructors systems used in AORiesgo, Francisco García et al.
Generalized Fluid Models of the Braginskii Type
Several generalizations of the well-known fluid model of Braginskii (1965) are considered. We use the Landau collisional operator and the moment method of Grad. We focus on the 21-moment model that is analogous to the Braginskii model, and we also consider a 22-moment model. Both models are formulated for general multispecies plasmas with arbitraryHunana, P. et al.
Solar Hα excess during Solar Cycle 24 from full-disk filtergrams of the Chromospheric Telescope
Context. The chromospheric Hα spectral line is a strong line in the spectrum of the Sun and other stars. In the stellar regime, this spectral line is already used as a powerful tracer of stellar activity. For the Sun, other tracers, such as Ca II K, are typically used to monitor solar activity. Nonetheless, the Sun is observed constantly in Hα withDiercke, A. et al.
Construction of coronal hole and active region magnetohydrostatic solutions in two dimensions: Force and energy balance
Coronal holes and active regions are typical magnetic structures found in the solar atmosphere. We propose several magnetohydrostatic equilibrium solutions that are representative of these structures in two dimensions. Our models include the effect of a finite plasma-β and gravity, but the distinctive feature is that we incorporate a thermalTerradas, J. et al.
DeSIRe: Departure coefficient aided Stokes Inversion based on Response functions
Future ground-based telescopes, such as the 4-metre class facilities DKIST and EST, will dramatically improve on current capabilities for simultaneous multi-line polarimetric observations in a wide range of wavelength bands, from the near-ultraviolet to the near-infrared. As a result, there will be an increasing demand for fast diagnostic tools, iRuiz Cobo, B. et al.
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