Systematic KMTNet Planetary Anomaly Search. I. OGLE-2019-BLG-1053Lb, a Buried Terrestrial Planet

Zang, Weicheng; Hwang, Kyu-Ha; Udalski, Andrzej; Wang, Tianshu; Zhu, Wei; Sumi, Takahiro; Yee, Jennifer C.; Gould, Andrew; Mao, Shude; Zhang, Xiangyu et al.
Bibliographical reference

The Astronomical Journal

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In order to exhume the buried signatures of "missing planetary caustics" in Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet) data, we conducted a systematic anomaly search of the residuals from point-source point-lens fits, based on a modified version of the KMTNet EventFinder algorithm. This search revealed the lowest-mass-ratio planetary caustic to date in the microlensing event OGLE-2019-BLG-1053, for which the planetary signal had not been noticed before. The planetary system has a planet-host mass ratio of q = (1.25 ± 0.13) × 10-5. A Bayesian analysis yielded estimates of the mass of the host star, ${M}_{\mathrm{host}}={0.61}_{-0.24}^{+0.29}\,{M}_{\odot }$ , the mass of its planet, ${M}_{\mathrm{planet}}={2.48}_{-0.98}^{+1.19}\,{M}_{\oplus }$ , the projected planet-host separation, ${a}_{\perp }={3.4}_{-0.5}^{+0.5}$ au, and the lens distance, ${D}_{{\rm{L}}}={6.8}_{-0.9}^{+0.6}$ kpc. The discovery of this very-low-mass-ratio planet illustrates the utility of our method and opens a new window for a large and homogeneous sample to study the microlensing planet-host mass ratio function down to q ~ 10-5.