Astronomy and Astrophysics
Aims: We aim to validate and characterize the new sub-Neptune-sized planet candidate TOI-2136.01 orbiting a nearby M dwarf (d = 33.36 ± 0.02pc, Teff = 3373 ± 108 K) with an orbital period of 7.852 days.
Methods: We use TESS data, ground-based multicolor photometry, and radial velocity measurements with the InfraRed Doppler (IRD) instrument on the Subaru Telescope to validate the planetary nature of TOI-2136.01, and estimate the stellar and planetary parameters. We also conduct high-resolution transmission spectroscopy to search for helium in its atmosphere.
Results: We confirm that TOI-2136.01 (now named TOI-2136b) is a bona fide planet with a planetary radius of Rp = 2.20 ± 0.07R⊕ and a mass of Mp = 4.7−2.6+3.1 M⊕. We also search for helium 10830 Å absorption lines and place an upper limit on the equivalent width of <7.8 mÅ and on the absorption signal of <1.44% with 95% confidence.
Conclusions: TOI-2136b is a sub-Neptune transiting a nearby and bright star (J = 10.8 mag), and is a potentially hycean planet, which is a new class of habitable planets with large oceans under a H2-rich atmosphere, making it an excellent target for atmospheric studies to understand the formation, evolution, and habitability of the small planets.