Astronomy and Astrophysics
Aims: We aim to develop a new inversion code capable of reliably inferring the physical parameters in the (x, y, z) domain.
Methods: We combine, in a self-consistent way, an inverse solver for the radiative transfer equation (Firtez-DZ) with a solver for the magneto-hydrostatic equilibrium, which derives realistic values of the gas pressure by taking the magnetic pressure and tension into account.
Results: We test the correct behavior of the newly developed code with spectropolarimetric observations of two sunspots recorded with the spectropolarimeter (SP) instrument on board the Hinode spacecraft, and we show how the physical parameters are inferred in the (x, y, z) domain, with the Wilson depression of the sunspots arising as a natural consequence of the force balance. In particular, our approach significantly improves upon previous determinations that were based on semiempirical models.
Conclusions: Our results open the door for the possibility of calculating reliable electric currents in three dimensions, j(x, y, z), in the solar photosphere. Further consistency checks would include a comparison with other methods that have recently been proposed and which achieve similar goals.
Magnetic fields are at the base of star formation and stellar structure and evolution. When stars are born, magnetic fields brake the rotation during the collapse of the mollecular cloud. In the end of the life of a star, magnetic fields can play a key role in the form of the strong winds that lead to the last stages of stellar evolution. During