ESPRESSO high-resolution transmission spectroscopy of WASP-76 b

Tabernero, H. M.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Allart, R.; Borsa, F.; Casasayas-Barris, N.; Demangeon, O.; Ehrenreich, D.; Lillo-Box, J.; Lovis, C.; Pallé, E.; Sousa, S. G.; Rebolo, R.; Santos, N. C.; Pepe, F.; Cristiani, S.; Adibekyan, V.; Allende Prieto, C.; Alibert, Y.; Barros, S. C. C.; Bouchy, F.; Bourrier, V.; D'Odorico, V.; Dumusque, X.; Faria, J. P.; Figueira, P.; Génova Santos, R.; González Hernández, J. I.; Hojjatpanah, S.; Lo Curto, G.; Lavie, B.; Martins, C. J. A. P.; Martins, J. H. C.; Mehner, A.; Micela, G.; Molaro, P.; Nunes, N. J.; Poretti, E.; Seidel, J. V.; Sozzetti, A.; Suárez Mascareño, A.; Udry, S.; Aliverti, M.; Affolter, M.; Alves, D.; Amate, M.; Avila, G.; Bandy, T.; Benz, W.; Bianco, A.; Broeg, C.; Cabral, A.; Conconi, P.; Coelho, J.; Cumani, C.; Deiries, S.; Dekker, H.; Delabre, B.; Fragoso, A.; Genoni, M.; Genolet, L.; Hughes, I.; Knudstrup, J.; Kerber, F.; Landoni, M.; Lizon, J. L.; Maire, C.; Manescau, A.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Mégevand, D.; Monteiro, M.; Monteiro, M.; Moschetti, M.; Mueller, E.; Modigliani, A.; Oggioni, L.; Oliveira, A.; Pariani, G.; Pasquini, L.; Rasilla, J. L.; Redaelli, E.; Riva, M.; Santana-Tschudi, S.; Santin, P.; Santos, P.; Segovia, A.; Sosnowska, D.; Spanò, P.; Tenegi, F.; Iwert, O.; Zanutta, A.; Zerbi, F.
Bibliographical reference

Astronomy and Astrophysics

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Aims: We report on ESPRESSO high-resolution transmission spectroscopic observations of two primary transits of the highly irradiated, ultra-hot Jupiter-sized planet, WASP-76b. We investigated the presence of several key atomic and molecular features of interest that may reveal the atmospheric properties of the planet.
Methods: We extracted two transmission spectra of WASP-76b with R ≈ 140 000 using a procedure that allowed us to process the full ESPRESSO wavelength range (3800-7880 Å) simultaneously. We observed that at a high signal-to-noise ratio, the continuum of ESPRESSO spectra shows `wiggles', which are likely caused by an interference pattern outside the spectrograph. To search for the planetary features, we visually analysed the extracted transmission spectra and cross-correlated the observations against theoretical spectra of different atomic and molecular species.
Results: The following atomic features are detected: Li I, Na I, Mg I, Ca II, Mn I, K I, and Fe I. All are detected with a confidence level between 9.2 σ (Na I) and 2.8 σ (Mg I). We did not detect the following species: Ti I, Cr I, Ni I, TiO, VO, and ZrO. We impose the following 1 σ upper limits on their detectability: 60, 77, 122, 6, 8, and 8 ppm, respectively.
Conclusions: We report the detection of Li I on WASP-76b for the first time. In addition, we confirm the presence of Na I and Fe I as previously reported in the literature. We show that the procedure employed in this work can detect features down to the level of ~0.1% in the transmission spectrum and ~10 ppm by means of a cross-correlation method. We discuss the presence of neutral and singly ionised features in the atmosphere of WASP-76b.

Based on guaranteed time observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under ESO programme 1102.C-0744 by the ESPRESSO Consortium.
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