TESS Hunt for Young and Maturing Exoplanets (THYME). VII. Membership, Rotation, and Lithium in the Young Cluster Group-X and a New Young Exoplanet

Newton, Elisabeth R.; Rampalli, Rayna; Kraus, Adam L.; Mann, Andrew W.; Curtis, Jason L.; Vanderburg, Andrew; Krolikowski, Daniel M.; Huber, Daniel; Petter, Grayson C.; Bieryla, Allyson; Tofflemire, Benjamin M.; Thao, Pa Chia; Wood, Mackenna L.; Kerr, Ronan; Safanov, Boris S.; Strakhov, Ivan A.; Ciardi, David R.; Giacalone, Steven; Dressing, Courtney D.; Gill, Holden; Savel, Arjun B.; Collins, Karen A.; Brown, Peyton; Murgas, Felipe; Isogai, Keisuke; Narita, Norio; Palle, Enric; Quinn, Samuel N.; Eastman, Jason D.; Fűrész, Gábor; Shiao, Bernie; Daylan, Tansu; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Ricker, George R.; Vanderspek, Roland; Seager, Sara; Winn, Joshua N.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Latham, David W.
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The Astronomical Journal

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The public, all-sky surveys Gaia and TESS provide the ability to identify new young associations and determine their ages. These associations enable study of planetary evolution by providing new opportunities to discover young exoplanets. A young association was recently identified by Tang et al. and Fürnkranz et al. using astrometry from Gaia (called "Group-X" by the former). In this work, we investigate the age and membership of this association, and we validate the exoplanet TOI 2048 b, which was identified to transit a young, late G dwarf in Group-X using photometry from TESS. We first identified new candidate members of Group-X using Gaia EDR3 data. To infer the age of the association, we measured rotation periods for candidate members using TESS data. The clear color-period sequence indicates that the association is the same age as the 300 ± 50 Myr old NGC 3532. We obtained optical spectra for candidate members that show lithium absorption consistent with this young age. Further, we serendipitously identify a new, small association nearby Group-X, which we call MELANGE-2. Lastly, we statistically validate TOI 2048 b, which is a 2.1 ± 0.2 R ⊕ radius planet on a 13.8-day orbit around its 300 Myr old host star.
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Exoplanets and Astrobiology
The search for life in the universe has been driven by recent discoveries of planets around other stars (known as exoplanets), becoming one of the most active fields in modern astrophysics. The growing number of new exoplanets discovered in recent years and the recent advance on the study of their atmospheres are not only providing new valuable
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