TOI-1416: A system with a super-Earth planet with a 1.07 d period

Deeg, H. J.; Georgieva, I. Y.; Nowak, G.; Persson, C. M.; Cale, B. L.; Murgas, F.; Pallé, E.; Godoy-Rivera, D.; Dai, F.; Ciardi, D. R.; Murphy, J. M. Akana; Beck, P. G.; Burke, C. J.; Cabrera, J.; Carleo, I.; Cochran, W. D.; Collins, K. A.; Csizmadia, Sz.; El Mufti, M.; Fridlund, M.; Fukui, A.; Gandolfi, D.; García, R. A.; Guenther, E. W.; Guerra, P.; Grziwa, S.; Isaacson, H.; Isogai, K.; Jenkins, J. M.; Kábath, P.; Korth, J.; Lam, K. W. F.; Latham, D. W.; Luque, R.; Lund, M. B.; Livingston, J. H.; Mathis, S.; Mathur, S.; Narita, N.; Orell-Miquel, J.; Osborne, H. L. M.; Parviainen, H.; Plavchan, P. P.; Redfield, S.; Rodriguez, D. R.; Schwarz, R. P.; Seager, S.; Smith, A. M. S.; Van Eylen, V.; Van Zandt, J.; Winn, J. N.; Ziegler, C.
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Astronomy and Astrophysics

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TOI-1416 (BD+42 2504, HIP 70705) is a V =10 late G- or early K-type dwarf star. TESS detected transits in its Sectors 16, 23, and 50 with a depth of about 455 ppm and a period of 1.07 days. Radial velocities (RVs) confirm the presence of the transiting planet TOI-1416 b, which has a mass of 3.48 ± 0.47 M⊕ and a radius of 1.62 ± 0.08 R⊕, implying a slightly sub-Earth density of 4.50−0.83+0.99 g cm−3. The RV data also further indicate a tentative planet, c, with a period of 27.4 or 29.5 days, whose nature cannot be verified due to strong suspicions of contamination by a signal related to the Moon's synodic period of 29.53 days. The nearly ultra-short-period planet TOI-1416 b is a typical representative of a short-period and hot (Teq ≈ 1570 K) super-Earth-like planet. A planet model of an interior of molten magma containing a significant fraction of dissolved water provides a plausible explanation for its composition, and its atmosphere could be suitable for transmission spectroscopy with JWST. The position of TOI-1416 b within the radius-period distribution corroborates the idea that planets with periods of less than one day do not form any special group. It instead implies that ultra-short-period planets belong to a continuous distribution of super-Earth-like planets with periods ranging from the shortest known ones up to ≈30 days; their period-radius distribution is delimited against larger radii by the Neptune Desert and by the period-radius valley that separates super-Earths from sub-Neptune planets. In the abundance of small, short-periodic planets, a notable plateau has emerged between periods of 0.6-1.4 days, which is compatible with the low-eccentricity formation channel. For the Neptune Desert, its lower limits required a revision due to the increasing population of short-period planets; for periods shorter then 2 days, we establish a radius of 1.6 R⊕ and a mass of 0.028 Mjup (corresponding to 8.9 M⊕) as the desert's lower limits. We also provide corresponding limits to the Neptune Desert against the planets' insolation and effective temperatures.

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