Numerical Astrophysics: Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    General
    Description

    How galaxies formed and evolved through cosmic time is one of the key questions of modern astronomy and astrophysics. Cosmological time- and length-scales are so large that the evolution of individual galaxies cannot be directly observed. Only through numerical simulations can one follow the emergence of cosmic structures within the current cosmological paradigm.

    The main physical processes in galaxy formation and evolution are gravity, hydrodynamics, gas cooling, star formation, stellar evolution, supernova (SN) and black hole (BH) feedback. These are highly non-linear, thus difficult to describe with analytic models. Moreover, the presence of baryonic matter induces biases that collisionless (“dark matter”) simulations alone cannot reproduce (e.g. van Daalen et al. 2014, MNRAS, 440, 2997; Velliscig et al. 2014, MNRAS, 442, 2641). Semi-analytic models based on these simulations require ad hoc corrections to account for these biases. Hydrodynamic, cosmological simulations are therefore the preferred tool for conducting “controlled experiments” of galaxy formation and evolution.

    After three decades of advances in numerical simulations, theorists have only recently been able to reproduce simultaneously the observed properties of the present day galaxy population and the inter-galactic medium (e.g. EAGLE, Schaye et al. 2015, MNRAS, 446, 521; ILLUSTRIS, Vogelsberger et al., 2014, Nature, 509, 177). In particular, the luminosity and mass function of galaxies, the galaxy size- and metallicity-mass relations, and many other properties are now reproduced over a large range of galaxy stellar masses.

    The group of numerical astrophysics work on a variety of scientific topics related to the evolution of galaxies and the large-scale structure of the universe. The expertise ranges from the internal structure of dwarf and low surface brightness galaxies, the Milky Way and its satellite galaxies, the study of galaxies in groups and clusters, to large, cosmological simulations of the structure of the universe. The group collaborates with most of the IAC research groups working on extragalactic astrophysics and cosmology.

    Principal investigator
    Co Principal investigator
    Collaborators
    Prof.
    Sadegh Khochfar
    Prof.
    Joop Schaye
    Dr.
    Yannick Bahé
    Prof.
    Gustavo Yepes
    Prof.
    Daisuke Kawata
    Prof.
    Andrea Macciò
    Prof.
    Alexander Knebe
    Dr.
    Hidenobu Yashima

    EDGE/C-EAGLE With the completion of the main sample of simulations, the post-processing phase has been started. Dalla Vecchia developed an analysis program to compute luminosities of SSPs and magnitudes of galaxies of ~30 resimulated clusters. The code makes use of the stellar spectra library EMILES, developed at the IAC and recently extended to cover a larger wavelength range. EUCLID Within the EUCLID collaboration, a total of 300 cosmological, N-body simulations of a volume representative of the observed universe were performed. The same sample of initial conditions was evolved with different techniques by other members of the collaboration. The comparison of the different techniques will allow to assess their accuracy in the estimation of the covariance matrix, thus the errors in the measurements from large-scale structure surveys. GALAXY INTERACTIONS IN CLUSTERS For several decades, it has been known that stellar bars in disc galaxies can be triggered by interactions, or by internal processes such as dynamical instabilities. Martínez-Valpuesta et al. (2017) explore the differences between these two mechanisms using numerical simulations. They used two groups of simulations based on isolated galaxies, one group in which a bar develops naturally, and another group in which the bar could not develop in isolation. The rest of the simulations recreate 1:1 coplanar fly-by interactions computed with the impulse approximation. Compared with equivalent isolated galaxies, they find that bars affected or triggered by interactions: (i) remain in the slow regime for longer, (ii) are boxier in face-on views and (iii) they host kinematically hotter discs. Within this set of simulations, strong differences between retrograde or prograde fly-bys are not seen. They also show that slow interactions can trigger bar formation.

    Related publications

    • A probabilistic deep learning model to distinguish cusps and cores in dwarf galaxies

      Numerical simulations within a cold dark matter (DM) cosmology form halos whose density profiles have a steep inner slope (‘cusp’), yet observations of galaxies often point towards a flat central ‘core’. We develop a convolutional mixture density neural network model to derive a probability density function (PDF) of the inner density slopes of DM

      Expósito-Márquez J. et al.

      Advertised on:

      12
      2022
    • The luminosity of cluster galaxies in the Cluster-EAGLE simulations

      We computed the luminosity of simulated galaxies of the C-EAGLE project, a suite of 30 high-resolution zoom-in simulations of galaxy clusters based on the EAGLE simulation. The AB magnitudes are derived for different spectral bands, from ultraviolet to infrared, using the simple stellar population modelling based on the E-MILES stellar spectra

      Negri, Andrea et al.

      Advertised on:

      9
      2022
    • NIHAO-LG: the uniqueness of Local Group dwarf galaxies

      Recent observational and theoretical studies of the Local Group (LG) dwarf galaxies have highlighted their unique star-formation history, stellar metallicity, gas content, and kinematics. We investigate the commonality of these features by comparing constrained LG and field central dwarf halo simulations in the Numerical Investigation of a Hundred

      Arora, Nikhil et al.

      Advertised on:

      6
      2022
    • Observed versus simulated halo c-M<SUB>vir</SUB> relations

      The concentration - virial mass relation is a well-defined trend that reflects the formation of structure in an expanding universe. Numerical simulations reveal a marked correlation that depends on the collapse time of dark matter haloes and their subsequent assembly history. However, observational constraints are mostly limited to the massive end

      Leier, Dominik et al.

      Advertised on:

      2
      2022
    • FOREVER22: galaxy formation in protocluster regions

      We present results from a new cosmological hydrodynamics simulation campaign of protocluster (PC) regions, FOREVER22: FORmation and EVolution of galaxies in Extremely overdense Regions motivated by SSA22. The simulations cover a wide range of cosmological scales using three different zoom set-ups in a parent volume of $(714.2~\rm cMpc)^{3}$: PCR

      Yajima, Hidenobu et al.

      Advertised on:

      1
      2022
    • Formation of the first galaxies in the aftermath of the first supernovae

      We perform high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to study the formation of the first galaxies that reach the masses of 108 - 9 h-1 M⊙ at z = 9. The resolution of the simulations is high enough to resolve minihaloes and allow us to successfully pursue the formation of multiple Population (Pop) III stars, their supernova (SN)

      Abe, Makito et al.

      Advertised on:

      12
      2021
    • A Shallow Dark Matter Halo in Ultra-diffuse Galaxy AGC 242019: Are UDGs Structurally Similar to Low-surface-brightness Galaxies?

      A central question regarding ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) is whether they are in a separate category from low-surface-brightness (LSB) galaxies, or just their natural continuation toward low stellar masses. In this Letter, we show that the rotation curve of the gas rich UDG AGC 242019 is well fit by a dark matter halo with an inner slope that

      Brook, Chris B. et al.

      Advertised on:

      9
      2021
    • Pericentric passage-driven star formation in satellite galaxies and their hosts: CLUES from local group simulations

      Local Group satellite galaxies show a wide diversity of star formation histories (SFHs) whose origin is yet to be fully understood. Using hydrodynamical simulations from the Constrained Local UniversE project, we study the SFHs of satellites of Milky Way-like galaxies in a cosmological context: while in the majority of the cases the accretion on to

      Di Cintio, Arianna et al.

      Advertised on:

      9
      2021
    • Origin of stellar prolate rotation in a cosmologically simulated faint dwarf galaxy

      Stellar prolate rotation in dwarf galaxies is rather uncommon, with only two known galaxies in the Local Group showing such feature (Phoenix and And II). Cosmological simulations show that in massive early-type galaxies prolate rotation likely arises from major mergers. However, the origin of such kinematics in the dwarf galaxies regime has only

      Cardona-Barrero, Salvador et al.

      Advertised on:

      7
      2021
    • History of the gas fuelling star formation in EAGLE galaxies

      Theory predicts that cosmological gas accretion plays a fundamental role fuelling star formation in galaxies. However, a detailed description of the accretion process to be used when interpreting observations is still lacking. Using the state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamical simulation EAGLE, we work out the chemical inhomogeneities arising

      Scholz-Díaz, Laura et al.

      Advertised on:

      8
      2021
    • Higher order Hamiltonian Monte Carlo sampling for cosmological large-scale structure analysis

      We investigate higher order symplectic integration strategies within Bayesian cosmic density field reconstruction methods. In particular, we study the fourth-order discretization of Hamiltonian equations of motion (EoM). This is achieved by recursively applying the basic second-order leap-frog scheme (considering the single evaluation of the EoM)

      Hernández-Sánchez, Mónica et al.

      Advertised on:

      4
      2021
    • Evaluating hydrodynamical simulations with green valley galaxies

      We test cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation regarding the properties of the blue cloud (BC), green valley (GV), and red sequence (RS), as measured on the 4000Å break strength versus stellar mass plane at z = 0.1. We analyse the RefL0100N1504 run of EAGLE and the TNG100 run of IllustrisTNG project, by comparing them with the

      Angthopo, J. et al.

      Advertised on:

      4
      2021
    • Self-interacting dark matter and the delay of supermassive black hole growth

      Using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with physically motivated models of supermassive black hole (SMBH) formation and growth, we compare the assembly of Milky Way-mass (Mvir ≍ 7 × 1011 M☉ at z = 0) galaxies in cold dark matter (CDM) and self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) models. Our SIDM model adopts a constant cross-section of 1 cm2 g-1

      Cruz, A. et al.

      Advertised on:

      1
      2021
    • Stellar splashback: the edge of the intracluster light

      We examine the outskirts of galaxy clusters in the C-EAGLE simulations to quantify the 'edges' of the stellar and dark matter distribution. The radius of the steepest slope in the dark matter, commonly used as a proxy for the splashback radius, is located at $\sim \, r_{200 \rm m}$ ; the strength and location of this feature depends on the recent

      Deason, Alis J. et al.

      Advertised on:

      1
      2021
    • The discovery of the most UV-Ly α luminous star-forming galaxy: a young, dust- and metal-poor starburst with QSO-like luminosities

      We report the discovery of BOSS-EUVLG1 at z = 2.469, by far the most luminous, almost un-obscured star-forming galaxy known at any redshift. First classified as a QSO within the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, follow-up observations with the Gran Telescopio Canarias reveal that its large luminosity, MUV ≃ -24.40 and log(LLyα/erg s-1) ≃ 44

      Marques-Chaves, R. et al.

      Advertised on:

      9
      2020
    • The First Billion Years project: Finding infant globular clusters at z = 6

      Aims: We aim to conduct an assessment of the demographics of substructures in cosmological simulations to identify low-mass stellar systems at high redshift, with a particular focus on globular cluster (GC) candidates. Methods: We explored a suite of high-resolution cosmological simulations from the First Billion Years Project (FiBY) at z ≥ 6. All

      Phipps, Frederika et al.

      Advertised on:

      9
      2020
    • NIHAO XXIV: rotation- or pressure-supported systems? Simulated Ultra Diffuse Galaxies show a broad distribution in their stellar kinematics

      In recent years, a new window on galaxy evolution opened, thanks to the increasing discovery of galaxies with a low-surface brightness, such as Ultra Diffuse Galaxies (UDGs). The formation mechanism of these systems is still a much debated question and so are their kinematical properties. In this work, we address this topic by analysing the stellar

      Cardona-Barrero, Salvador et al.

      Advertised on:

      7
      2020
    • Constraining the inner density slope of massive galaxy clusters

      We determine the inner density profiles of massive galaxy clusters (M200 > 5 × 1014 M☉) in the Cluster-EAGLE (C-EAGLE) hydrodynamic simulations, and investigate whether the dark matter density profiles can be correctly estimated from a combination of mock stellar kinematical and gravitational lensing data. From fitting mock stellar kinematics and

      He, Qiuhan et al.

      Advertised on:

      6
      2020
    • Explaining the chemical trajectories of accreted and in-situ halo stars of the Milky Way

      The Milky Way underwent its last significant merger ten billion years ago, when the Gaia-Enceladus-Sausage (GES) was accreted. Accreted GES stars and progenitor stars born prior to the merger make up the bulk of the inner halo. Even though these two main populations of halo stars have similar durations of star formation prior to their merger, they

      Brook, Chris B. et al.

      Advertised on:

      4
      2020
    • Kinematic analysis of eagle simulations: evolution of λ<SUB>Re</SUB> and its connection with mergers and gas accretion

      We have developed a new tool to analyse galaxies in the eagle simulations as close as possible to observations. We investigated the evolution of their kinematic properties by means of the angular momentum proxy parameter, λRe, for galaxies with M⋆ ≥ 5 × 109 M☉ in the RefL0100N1504 simulation up to redshift two (z = 2). Galaxies in the simulation

      Walo-Martín, D. et al.

      Advertised on:

      5
      2020

    Related talks

    No related talks were found.

    Related conferences

    No related conferences were found.