Fine structure in the Sigma Orionis cluster revealed by Gaia DR3

Žerjal, M.; Martín, E. L.; Pérez-Garrido, A.
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Astronomy and Astrophysics

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Context. Sigma Orionis is an open cluster in the nearest giant star formation site - Orion. Its youth (3−5 Myr), low reddening, and relative vicinity make it an important benchmark cluster to study stellar and substellar formation and evolution.
Aims: Young star-forming sites are complex and hierarchical. Precision astrometry from Gaia DR3 enables the exploration of their fine structure.
Methods: We used the modified convergent point technique to kinematically re-evaluate the members in the Sigma Orionis cluster and its vicinity.
Results: We present clear evidence for three kinematically distinct groups in the Sigma Orionis region. The second group, the RV Orionis association, is adjacent to the Sigma Orionis cluster and is composed only of low-mass stars. The third group, the Flame association, whose age is comparable to that of Sigma Orionis, overlaps with the younger NGC 2024 in the Flame Nebula. In total, we have discovered 105 members of this complex not previously found in the literature (82 in Sigma Orionis, 19 in the Flame association, and 4 in the RV Orionis association).

Full Tables A.1 and C.1 are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via