X-ray jets and magnetic flux emergence in the Sun

Moreno-Insertis, Fernando
Referencia bibliográfica

Cosmic Magnetic Fields: From Planets, to Stars and Galaxies, Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, IAU Symposium, Volume 259, p. 201-210

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Magnetized plasma is emerging continually from the solar interior into the atmosphere. Magnetic flux emergence events and their consequences in the solar atmosphere are being observed with high space, time and spectral resolution by a large number of space missions in operation at present (e.g. SOHO, Hinode, Stereo, Rhessi). The collision of an emerging and a preexisting magnetic flux system in the solar atmosphere leads to the formation of current sheets and to field line reconnection. Reconnection under solar coronal conditions is an energetic event; for the field strengths, densities and speeds involved in the collision of emerging flux systems, the reconnection outflows lead to launching of high-speed (hundreds of km/s), high-temperature (107 K) plasma jets. Such jets are being observed with the X-Ray and EUV detectors of ongoing satellite missions. On the other hand, the spectacular increase in computational power in recent years permits to carry out three-dimensional numerical experiments of the time evolution of flux emerging systems and the launching of jets with a remarkable degree of detail. In this review, observation and modeling of the solar X-Ray jets are discussed. A two-decade long computational effort to model the magnetic flux emergence events by different teams has led to numerical experiments which explain, even quantitatively, many of the observed features of the X-ray jets. The review points out that, although alternative mechanisms must be considered, flux emergence is a prime candidate to explain the launching of the solar jets.