Galaxies in the universe can be located in different environments, some of them are isolated or in low density regions and they are usually called field galaxies. The others can be located in galaxy associations, going from loose groups to clusters or even superclusters of galaxies. One of the foremost challenges of the modern Astrophysics is to achieve a complete theory about galaxy evolution. This theory should explain the relation between the environment and galaxy evolution. Galaxy clusters are high density environments where galaxies interact one to each other and with the intracluster material (ICM). In addition, the cluster dynamics is driven by the high density and quantity of dark matter present in them. Therefore, galaxy clusters are complex systems with multiple components (galaxies, ICM, dark matter) which are tightly bounded. The mix of all these components, as well as their interactions, makes galaxy clusters ideal laboratories to study the different mechanisms which cause the different evolution of galaxies in this high density environments with respect to field galaxies.
The objective of this project is to study the formation and evolution of galaxies in these dense environments. The ‘Galaxy Evolution in Clusters’ group intend to understand in what environment each of the mechanisms proposed by numerical simulations to transform the galaxies dominates and how the evolution of the different types of galaxies (both bright and dwarf) occurs in the clusters. Quantifying observationally the efficiency of these mechanisms is not an easy task since many of them act at the same time, they do it in very different time scales, and in diverse regions of the cluster. However, there are some observational evidences that can be directly contrasted: i) morphological and structural distribution of the galaxies of the clusters; ii) luminosity function of galaxies in clusters; iii) diffuse light (quantity and distribution); iv) presence of galactic substructures within the clusters; v) spectro-photometric properties of dwarf and bright galaxies; vi) ICM properties. All these observables provide the necessary information to understand the relationship between environment and galactic evolution. These are the quantities this project aims at measuring for large samples of galaxy clusters.
- Intrinsic Shape of Galactic Bars. We find, for the first time, that 52% (16%) of bulges are thicker (flatter) than the surrounding bar. We suggest that these percentages might be representative of the fraction of classical and disc-like bulges in our sample, respectively.
- The Influence of the Environment in the Star Formation Quenching. Our results indicate that in low-density environments, post-starburst galaxies are formed by gas-rich minor mergers or accretions, whereas for high-density environments PSBs would be produced by the removal of the gas reservoirs of emission line galaxies by ram-pressure stripping.
- Morpho-Kinematic Properties of Galactic Bulges. We find that photometric diagnostics to separate different types of bulges (disc-like versus classical) might not be useful for S0 galaxies. Using the morpho-kinematics properties of S0 bulges derived in this paper we suggest that they are mainly formed by dissipational processes happening at high redshift.
Fossil group origins. XII. The large-scale environment around fossil systems
Aims: We analyse the large-scale structure out to 100 Mpc around a sample of 16 confirmed fossil systems using spectroscopic information from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 16. Methods: We computed the distance between our fossil groups (FGs) and the centres of filaments and nodes from the literature. We also studied the density ofZarattini, S. et al.
Forecasting the success of the WEAVE Wide-Field Cluster Survey on the extraction of the cosmic web filaments around galaxy clusters
Next-generation wide-field spectroscopic surveys will observe the infall regions around large numbers of galaxy clusters with high sampling rates for the first time. Here, we assess the feasibility of extracting the large-scale cosmic web around clusters using forthcoming observations, given realistic observational constraints. We use a sample ofCornwell, Daniel J. et al.
A slow lopsided bar in the interacting dwarf galaxy IC 3167
We present surface photometry and stellar kinematics of IC 3167, a dwarf galaxy hosting a lopsided weak bar and infalling into the Virgo cluster. We measured the bar radius and strength from broad-band imaging and bar pattern speed by applying the Tremaine-Weinberg method to stellar-absorption integral-field spectroscopy. We derived the ratio ofCuomo, V. et al.
A slow bar in the lenticular barred galaxy NGC 4277
Aims: We characterised the properties of the bar hosted in lenticular galaxy NGC 4277, which is located behind the Virgo cluster. Methods: We measured the bar length and strength from the surface photometry obtained from the broad-band imaging of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and we derived the bar pattern speed from the stellar kinematics obtainedButtitta, C. et al.
The luminosity of cluster galaxies in the Cluster-EAGLE simulations
We computed the luminosity of simulated galaxies of the C-EAGLE project, a suite of 30 high-resolution zoom-in simulations of galaxy clusters based on the EAGLE simulation. The AB magnitudes are derived for different spectral bands, from ultraviolet to infrared, using the simple stellar population modelling based on the E-MILES stellar spectraNegri, Andrea et al.
Photometric Signature of Ultraharmonic Resonances in Barred Galaxies
Bars may induce morphological features, such as rings, through their resonances. Previous studies suggested that the presence of "dark gaps," or regions of a galaxy where the difference between the surface brightness along the bar major axis and that along the bar minor axis is maximal, can be attributed to the location of bar corotation. HereKrishnarao, Dhanesh et al.
Properties of Fossil Groups of GalaxiesAguerri, J. Alfonso L. et al.
Fossil group origins. XI. The dependence of galaxy orbits on the magnitude gap
Aims: We aim to study how the orbits of galaxies in clusters depend on the prominence of the corresponding central galaxies. Methods: We divided our data set of ∼100 clusters and groups into four samples based on their magnitude gap between the two brightest members, Δm12. We then stacked all the systems in each sample in order to create fourZarattini, S. et al.
The dwarf galaxy population in nearby clusters from the KIWICS survey
We analyse a sample of 12 galaxy clusters, from the Kapteyn IAC WEAVE INT Cluster Survey (KIWICS) looking for dwarf galaxy candidates. By using photometric data in the r and g bands from the Wide Field Camera (WFC) at the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT), we select a sample of bright dwarf galaxies (M$_r\, \le$ -15.5 mag) in each cluster andChoque-Challapa, Nelvy et al.
A Duality in the Origin of Bulges and Spheroidal Galaxies
Studying the resolved stellar populations of the different structural components that build massive galaxies directly unveils their assembly history. We aim at characterizing the stellar population properties of a representative sample of bulges and pure spheroids in massive galaxies (M⋆ > 1010 M⊙) in the GOODS-N field. We take advantage of theCostantin, Luca et al.
Bar pattern speeds in CALIFA galaxies. III. Solving the puzzle of ultrafast bars
Context. More than 10% of barred galaxies with a direct measurement of the bar pattern speed host an ultrafast bar. These bars extend well beyond the corotation radius and challenge our understanding of the orbital structure of barred galaxies. Most of the bars are found in spiral galaxies, rather than in lenticular galaxies. Aims: We analyse theCuomo, Virginia et al.
The origin of bulges and discs in the CALIFA survey - I. Morphological evolution
This series of papers aims at understanding the formation and evolution of non-barred disc galaxies. We use the new spectro-photometric decomposition code, C2D, to separate the spectral information of bulges and discs of a statistically representative sample of galaxies from the CALIFA survey. Then, we study their stellar population propertiesMéndez-Abreu, J. et al.
The VANDELS ESO public spectroscopic survey. Final data release of 2087 spectra and spectroscopic measurements
VANDELS is an ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey designed to build a sample of high-signal-to-noise ratio, medium-resolution spectra of galaxies at redshifts between 1 and 6.5. Here we present the final Public Data Release of the VANDELS Survey, comprising 2087 redshift measurements. We provide a detailed description of sample selection, observationsGarilli, B. et al.
Composite bulges - II. Classical bulges and nuclear discs in barred galaxies: the contrasting cases of NGC 4608 and NGC 4643
We present detailed morphological, photometric, and stellar-kinematic analyses of the central regions of two massive, early-type barred galaxies with nearly identical large-scale morphologies. Both have large, strong bars with prominent inner photometric excesses that we associate with boxy/peanut-shaped (B/P) bulges; the latter constitute ∼30 perErwin, Peter et al.
Galaxies within galaxies in the TIMER survey: stellar populations of inner bars are scaled replicas of main bars
Inner bars are frequent structures in the local Universe and thought to substantially influence the nuclear regions of disc galaxies. In this study we explore the structure and dynamics of inner bars by deriving maps and radial profiles of their mean stellar population content and comparing them to previous findings in the context of main bars. ToBittner, Adrian et al.
New Observations with Gemini and GTC of the VHE Blazar KUV 00311-1938: About Its Redshift and Environment
Extragalactic very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) sources are unique objects to study the most powerful particle accelerators in nature, as active galactic nuclei are likely sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. BL Lacertae blazars are the most frequent extragalactic objects found in the VHE gamma-ray catalogs. It is very difficult to estimatePichel, A. et al.
The kinematics of young and old stellar populations in nuclear rings of MUSE TIMER galaxies
Context. Studying the stellar kinematics of galaxies is a key tool in the reconstruction of their evolution. However, the current measurements of the stellar kinematics are complicated by several factors, including dust extinction and the presence of multiple stellar populations. Aims: We use integral field spectroscopic data of four galaxies fromRosado-Belza, D. et al.
Inside-out formation of nuclear discs and the absence of old central spheroids in barred galaxies of the TIMER survey
The centres of disc galaxies host a variety of structures built via both internal and external processes. In this study, we constrain the formation and evolution of these central structures, in particular, nuclear rings and nuclear discs, by deriving maps of mean stellar ages, metallicities, and [α/Fe] abundances. We use observations obtained withBittner, Adrian et al.
Kinematic signatures of nuclear discs and bar-driven secular evolution in nearby galaxies of the MUSE TIMER project
The central regions of disc galaxies hold clues to the processes that dominate their formation and evolution. To exploit this, the TIMER project has obtained high signal-to-noise and spatial resolution integral-field spectroscopy data of the inner few kpc of 21 nearby massive barred galaxies, which allows studies of the stellar kinematics in theirGadotti, Dimitri A. et al.
Relations among structural parameters in barred galaxies with a direct measurement of bar pattern speed
We investigate the relations between the properties of bars and their host galaxies in a sample of 77 nearby barred galaxies, spanning a wide range of morphological types and luminosities, with 34 SB0-SBa and 43 SBab-SBc galaxies. The sample includes all the galaxies with reliable direct measurement of their bar pattern speed based on long-slit orCuomo, V. et al.
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