Mapping the Galactic disc with the LAMOST and Gaia red clump sample: II. 3D asymmetrical kinematics of mono-age populations in the disc between 6-14 kpc

Wang, H. -F.; López-Corredoira, M.; Huang, Y.; Carlin, J. L.; Chen, B. -Q.; Wang, C.; Chang, J.; Zhang, H. -W.; Xiang, M. -S.; Yuan, H. -B.; Sun, W. -X.; Li, X. -Y.; Yang, Y.; Deng, L. -C.
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Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

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We perform analysis of the 3D kinematics of Milky Way disc stars in mono-age populations. We focus on stars between Galactocentric distances of R = 6 and 14 kpc, selected from the combined LAMOST Data Release 4 (DR4) red clump giant stars and Gaia DR2 proper motion catalogue. We confirm the 3D asymmetrical motions of recent works and provide time tagging of the Galactic outer disc asymmetrical motions near the anticentre direction out to Galactocentric distances of 14 kpc. Radial Galactocentric motions reach values up to 10 km s-1, depending on the age of the population, and present a north-south asymmetry in the region corresponding to density and velocity substructures that were sensitive to the perturbations in the early 6 Gyr. After that time, the disc stars in this asymmetrical structure have become kinematically hotter, and are thus not sensitive to perturbations, and we find the structure is a relatively younger population. With quantitative analysis, we find stars both above and below the plane at R ≳ 9 kpc that exhibit bending mode motions of which the sensitive duration is around 8 Gyr. We speculate that the in-plane asymmetries might not be mainly caused by a fast rotating bar, intrinsically elliptical outer disc, secular expansion of the disc, or streams. Spiral arm dynamics, out-of-equilibrium models, minor mergers or others are important contributors. Vertical motions might be dominated by bending and breathing modes induced by complicated inner or external perturbers. It is likely that many of these mechanisms are coupled together.
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