Measuring fundamental jet properties with multiwavelength fast timing of the black hole X-ray binary MAXI J1820+070

Tetarenko, A. J.; Casella, P.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Paice, J. A.; Vincentelli, F. M.; Maccarone, T. J.; Gandhi, P.; Dhillon, V. S.; Marsh, T. R.; Russell, T. D.; Uttley, P.
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Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

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We present multiwavelength fast timing observations of the black hole X-ray binary MAXI J1820+070 (ASASSN-18ey), taken with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-Millimeter Array (ALMA), Very Large Telescope (VLT), New Technology Telescope (NTT), Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER), and XMM-Newton. Our data set simultaneously samples 10 different electromagnetic bands (radio - X-ray) over a 7-h period during the hard state of the 2018-2019 outburst. The emission we observe is highly variable, displaying multiple rapid flaring episodes. To characterize the variability properties in our data, we implemented a combination of cross-correlation and Fourier analyses. We find that the emission is highly correlated between different bands, measuring time-lags ranging from hundreds of milliseconds between the X-ray/optical bands to minutes between the radio/sub-mm bands. Our Fourier analysis also revealed, for the first time in a black hole X-ray binary, an evolving power spectral shape with electromagnetic frequency. Through modelling these variability properties, we find that MAXI J1820+070 launches a highly relativistic ($\Gamma =6.81^{+1.06}_{-1.15}$) and confined ($\phi =0.45^{+0.13}_{-0.11}$ deg) jet, which is carrying a significant amount of power away from the system (equivalent to $\sim 0.6 \, L_{1-100{\rm keV}}$). We additionally place constraints on the jet composition and magnetic field strength in the innermost jet base region. Overall, this work demonstrates that time-domain analysis is a powerful diagnostic tool for probing jet physics, where we can accurately measure jet properties with time-domain measurements alone.
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