Astronomy and Astrophysics
Aims: In this work, we explore the spectral window containing Fraunhofer lines formed in the solar photosphere, around the magnetically sensitive Cr I lines at 5780.9, 5781.1, 5781.7, 5783.0, and 5783.8 Å, with Landé g-factors between 1.6 and 2.5. The goal is to simultaneously analyze 15 spectral lines, comprising Cr I, Cu I, Fe I, Mn I, and Si I lines, without the use of polarimetry, to infer the thermodynamic and magnetic properties in strongly magnetized plasmas using an inversion code.
Methods: Our study is based on a new setup at the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT, Tenerife), which includes fast spectroscopic scans in the wavelength range around the Cr I 5781.75 Å line. The oscillator strengths log(gf) of all spectral lines, as well as their response functions to temperature, magnetic field, and Doppler velocity, were determined using the Stokes Inversion based on Response functions (SIR) code. Snapshot 385 of the enhanced network simulation from the Bifrost code serves to synthesize all the lines, which are, in turn, inverted simultaneously with SIR to establish the best inversion strategy. We applied this strategy to VTT observations of a sunspot belonging to NOAA 12723 on 2018 September 30 and compared the results to full-disk vector field data obtained with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI).
Results: The 15 simultaneously inverted intensity profiles (Stokes I) delivered accurate temperatures and Doppler velocities when compared with the simulations. The derived magnetic fields and inclinations achieve the best level of accuracy when the fields are oriented along the line-of-sight (LOS) and less accurate when the fields are transverse to the LOS. In general, the results appear similar to what is reported in the HMI vector-field data, although some discrepancies exist.
Conclusions: The analyzed spectral range has the potential to deliver thermal, dynamic, and magnetic information for strongly magnetized features on the Sun, such as pores and sunspots, even without the use of polarimetry. The highest sensitivity of the lines is found in the lower photosphere, on average, around log τ = −1. The multiple-line inversions provide smooth results across the whole field of view (FOV). The presented spectral range and inversion strategy will be used for future VTT observing campaigns.
Los campos magnéticos son uno de los ingredientes fundamentales en la formación de estrellas y su evolución. En el nacimiento de una estrella, los campos magnéticos llegan a frenar su rotación durante el colapso de la nube molecular, y en el fin de la vida de una estrella, el magnetismo puede ser clave en la forma en la que se pierden las capas