On the Pair-instability Supernova Origin of J1010+2358

Skúladóttir, Ása; Koutsouridou, Ioanna; Vanni, Irene; Amarsi, Anish M.; Lucchesi, Romain; Salvadori, Stefania; Aguado, David S.
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The Astrophysical Journal

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The first (Population III) stars formed only out of H and He and were likely more massive than present-day stars. Massive Population III stars in the range 140–260 M ⊙ are predicted to end their lives as pair-instability supernovae (PISNe), enriching the environment with a unique abundance pattern, with high ratios of odd to even elements. Recently, the most promising candidate for a pure descendant of a zero-metallicity massive PISN (260 M ⊙) was discovered by the LAMOST survey, the star J1010+2358. However, key elements to verify the high PISN contribution, C and Al, were missing from the analysis. To rectify this, we obtained and analyzed a high-resolution Very Large Telescope/UVES spectrum, correcting for 3D and/or non-local thermodynamic equilibrium effects. Our measurements of both C and Al give much higher values (∼1 dex) than expected from a 260 M ⊙ PISN. Furthermore, we find significant discrepancies with the previous analysis and therefore a much less pronounced odd–even pattern. Our results show that J1010+2358 cannot be a pure descendant of a 260 M ⊙ PISN. Instead, we find that the best-fit model consists of a 13 M ⊙ Population II core-collapse supernova combined with a Population III supernova. Alternative, less favored solutions ( ) include a 50% contribution from a 260 M ⊙ PISN or a 40% contribution from a Population III Type Ia supernova. Ultimately, J1010+2358 is certainly a unique star giving insights into the earliest chemical enrichment; however, this star is not a pure PISN descendant. * Based on observations made with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the ESO at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under the program ID 112.26WJ.001